Warning

 

Close

Confirm Action

Are you sure you wish to do this?

Confirm Cancel
Member Login
Arrow Left Previous Page
Page / 2
Posted: 9/13/2010 12:39:31 PM EDT
IO could make to improve my blood glucose level? Thanks!
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 12:41:16 PM EDT
I'm no doctor or nutritional specialist, but I'd say you might try eating less sugar and carbs.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 12:44:03 PM EDT
Having recently become a diabetic .... find out WTF is going on ASAP and do not *&%^ around with that. If they end up telling you that you are pre-diabetic get that shit under control NOW.

I wouldn't wish this hell on anyone.

Link Posted: 9/13/2010 12:50:16 PM EDT
Just how do you know if your blood sugar is high today?

The only way I know of is to use a meter, but with no past history, you would not have the need for one.

Link Posted: 9/13/2010 12:53:42 PM EDT
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 12:53:53 PM EDT
Recent diabetes thread is here with a lot of good info on how to eat and control blood sugar levels.

http://www.ar15.com/forums/topic.html?b=1&f=75&t=1087799
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:07:20 PM EDT
Originally Posted By Eazy_E:
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.


man - that's just cruel
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:08:44 PM EDT
holistic treatment?

eat less sugar
take insulin if you need it
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:08:58 PM EDT

I got a free meter a couple years ago. went to the doc and had blood work done and it was a little high he said. I checked today when I woke up and the meter read 166. Is that really high?

I've been losing weight and have my bp under control.

What are some ways to get it under control, I do not want to start medicine if I can help it, I know things only go down hill from there.

Originally Posted By CnA:
Just how do you know if your blood sugar is high today?

The only way I know of is to use a meter, but with no past history, you would not have the need for one.



Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:10:11 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 9/13/2010 1:11:05 PM EDT by callgood]
Originally Posted By xanadu:
Originally Posted By Eazy_E:
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.


man - that's just cruel


I eat a lot of oatmeal (not instant). Instead of water I use apple juice and mix a teaspoon of cinnamon in.

Not bad.

eta: OP, do you know the meter is spot on?

Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:12:38 PM EDT
Originally Posted By ARsonist:
Having recently become a diabetic .... find out WTF is going on ASAP and do not *&%^ around with that. If they end up telling you that you are pre-diabetic get that shit under control NOW.

I wouldn't wish this hell on anyone.






QFT!

I was diagnosed as a type 2 diabetic almost 1 full year ago and, all in all, it hasn't been all that bad but I have to watch my diet and I have to take my prescriptions everyday. I did real good last fall and into the early spring but I got off the track during the summer and I'm just now getting my high glucose number back into a decent, manageable, area.

Look at it this way––––-go see a doctor and have yourself checked out. That's better than going into some sort of diabetic shock or losing your vision or increasing your chances for suffering some other diabetes related complication. If you are a diabetic then it doesn't mean the end of the world. It is manageable and you can live a pretty normal life but you just have to watch your sugar and carb intake, take your medicine, monitor your blood and try to get a little bit of exercise each day. Actually, it sounds harder than it really is (at least that's been my experience as a type 2er). My biggest fault is I don't get the right amount of exercise each day. Managing my diet has been easy and the medications biggest side effect (at least so far) has been diarrhea. Monitoring my blood takes about 5 minutes each day.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:12:46 PM EDT
Originally Posted By xanadu:
Originally Posted By Eazy_E:
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.


man - that's just cruel




It is true.

I would not eat a teaspoon a day though. Go to target or GNC and get some cinnamon pills.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:15:04 PM EDT
The ancients use to taste the sugar in urine. Maybe that's how he knows.

Just sayin'

Originally Posted By CnA:
Just how do you know if your blood sugar is high today?

The only way I know of is to use a meter, but with no past history, you would not have the need for one.



Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:16:48 PM EDT
Originally Posted By 223Sauce:
Originally Posted By xanadu:
Originally Posted By Eazy_E:
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.


man - that's just cruel




It is true.

I would not eat a teaspoon a day though. Go to target or GNC and get some cinnamon pills.


I wouldn't mess around with any homeopathic, untested nonsense.

If you're pre-diabetic, see a doctor and start working on your diet.

If your sugars get out of control, take real, clinically tested medications.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:16:49 PM EDT
Got to workout, it will drop my level by 20 points after exercising. Also low carb sugar diet.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 1:37:52 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 9/13/2010 1:45:10 PM EDT by Rich_V]
Originally Posted By KnightofTheOldeCode:

I got a free meter a couple years ago. went to the doc and had blood work done and it was a little high he said. I checked today when I woke up and the meter read 166. Is that really high?

I've been losing weight and have my bp under control.

What are some ways to get it under control, I do not want to start medicine if I can help it, I know things only go down hill from there.

Originally Posted By CnA:
Just how do you know if your blood sugar is high today?

The only way I know of is to use a meter, but with no past history, you would not have the need for one.






If that reading was before you had food, you are most likely a diabetic, most non diabetic people will not go that high after a full meal.

See a doctor now!

"People with a fasting glucose level of 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Having IFG means a person has an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes but does not have it yet. A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means a person has diabetes."

Link
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 2:02:51 PM EDT

Originally Posted By xanadu:
Originally Posted By Eazy_E:
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.


man - that's just cruel

I didn't mean straight up. Mix it in with some tea or coffee or something.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 2:41:15 PM EDT

Originally Posted By Eazy_E:
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.

This girl's boyfriend is only helping her with her blood sugar levels, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcO_8axg3Fs

Link Posted: 9/13/2010 2:42:34 PM EDT
Eat a Diabetic Diet

Even if you are not one it is good for you


Link Posted: 9/13/2010 2:48:44 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 9/13/2010 2:55:06 PM EDT by tc2k11]
Originally Posted By KnightofTheOldeCode:

I got a free meter a couple years ago. went to the doc and had blood work done and it was a little high he said. I checked today when I woke up and the meter read 166. Is that really high?

I've been losing weight and have my bp under control.

What are some ways to get it under control, I do not want to start medicine if I can help it, I know things only go down hill from there.

Originally Posted By CnA:
Just how do you know if your blood sugar is high today?

The only way I know of is to use a meter, but with no past history, you would not have the need for one.




If 166 was taken after 8 hours without anything to eat or drink... Sorry, bud, you're diabetic. Now that we have that out there, how much do you weigh and how tall are you? If you're anything larger (i.e., fatter) than "normal" according to published BMI figures, then the only non-medication solution is...

WEIGHT LOSS + EXERCISE

Good luck.

ETA: You should probably repeat the fasting glucose via blood draw/meter known to be properly calibrated. If you're not overweight, exercise helps increase insulin sensitivity, which is what you need. Exercise. Like long walks, long jogs, etc.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 2:53:02 PM EDT
Go Paleo and never look back.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 6:45:24 PM EDT
Originally Posted By KnightofTheOldeCode:

I got a free meter a couple years ago. went to the doc and had blood work done and it was a little high he said. I checked today when I woke up and the meter read 166. Is that really high?

I've been losing weight and have my bp under control.

What are some ways to get it under control, I do not want to start medicine if I can help it, I know things only go down hill from there.

Originally Posted By CnA:
Just how do you know if your blood sugar is high today?

The only way I know of is to use a meter, but with no past history, you would not have the need for one.





The test strips have an expiration date on them. There's also a calibration strip in each batch of strips (i.e. you need to use the calibration strip whenever you start a new pack of strips).

Maybe check the expiration date, and your calibration. If the strips were open or out of date, maybe buy a new pack of strips before worrying too much.

Offhand.....sugary drinks (sodas) are the most often abused sugar source.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 6:49:52 PM EDT
Exorcise will bring your blood sugar down.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 6:55:32 PM EDT
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 7:00:13 PM EDT

Originally Posted By Tolip:
Originally Posted By 223Sauce:
Originally Posted By xanadu:
Originally Posted By Eazy_E:
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.


man - that's just cruel




It is true.

I would not eat a teaspoon a day though. Go to target or GNC and get some cinnamon pills.


I wouldn't mess around with any homeopathic, untested nonsense.

If you're pre-diabetic, see a doctor and start working on your diet.

If your sugars get out of control, take real, clinically tested medications.

I'm type 2 diabetic, have been for 5 years. FDA has stated that cinnamon does lower blood glucose levels.

That said, the OP is in an undiagnosed condition. He needs to get medically evaluated to see exactly what is going on. He may be past the insulin resistance stage and into a full blown type 1 diabetic.

Meds + diet + exercise + homeopathic "nonsense" is the way the OP will have to go unless he just wants to give himself injections (or the pump). There isn't anything wrong with homeopathic care as long as the doctor knows about it and says it's OK. The "get off that evil insulin and start eating tree bark" is the stuff that will kill you.

Link Posted: 9/13/2010 7:01:32 PM EDT
Originally Posted By ElevenO:
Originally Posted By ARsonist:
Having recently become a diabetic .... find out WTF is going on ASAP and do not *&%^ around with that. If they end up telling you that you are pre-diabetic get that shit under control NOW.

I wouldn't wish this hell on anyone.






QFT!

I was diagnosed as a type 2 diabetic almost 1 full year ago and, all in all, it hasn't been all that bad but I have to watch my diet and I have to take my prescriptions everyday. I did real good last fall and into the early spring but I got off the track during the summer and I'm just now getting my high glucose number back into a decent, manageable, area.

Look at it this way––––-go see a doctor and have yourself checked out. That's better than going into some sort of diabetic shock or losing your vision or increasing your chances for suffering some other diabetes related complication. If you are a diabetic then it doesn't mean the end of the world. It is manageable and you can live a pretty normal life but you just have to watch your sugar and carb intake, take your medicine, monitor your blood and try to get a little bit of exercise each day. Actually, it sounds harder than it really is (at least that's been my experience as a type 2er). My biggest fault is I don't get the right amount of exercise each day. Managing my diet has been easy and the medications biggest side effect (at least so far) has been diarrhea. Monitoring my blood takes about 5 minutes each day.


Ditto. Diagnosed Type 2 a year ago in August. For my birthday no less! Yes it's not the end of the world. The sooner you deal with it the better.

Link Posted: 9/13/2010 7:09:34 PM EDT

Originally Posted By KnightofTheOldeCode:

I got a free meter a couple years ago. went to the doc and had blood work done and it was a little high he said.I checked today when I woke up and the meter read 166. Is that really high?

I've been losing weight and have my bp under control.

What are some ways to get it under control, I do not want to start medicine if I can help it, I know things only go down hill from there.

Originally Posted By CnA:
Just how do you know if your blood sugar is high today?

The only way I know of is to use a meter, but with no past history, you would not have the need for one.




If that was your fasting BS level, you are already a diabetic.

Go to your Dr. or in this case, maybe find a new one if he wasn't monitoring your BS levels after realizing they were high 2 years ago.



Link Posted: 9/13/2010 7:27:54 PM EDT
Low carb diet, also I have heard that some people have had good results taking chromium. I'd be leary if your doctor prescribes medicine that forces insulin production. High insulin levels will bring its own set of problems, so if you can get it down any other way, do it.

Dr. Michael Eades, who wrote Protein Power, made this comment on his blog:
"I can say that at this time most scientists believe that the root cause of insulin resistance and type II diabetes is a defect in the insulin receptor caused by an intracellular accumulation of fat. The question is, what causes the intracellular accumulation of fat? We know that one thing for sure does: fructose. Carbohydrates in the diet cause the liver to produce more VLDL, which in turn leads to increased levels of triglycerides and increased intracellular fat. I would put my money on the theory that overconsumption of carbohydrates, especially fructose, is the culprit."

Take a hard look at how much fructose you have been consuming.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 7:28:22 PM EDT
what's considered high?
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 7:39:49 PM EDT

Originally Posted By Eazy_E:
Eating cinnamon has been shown to decrease blood glucose levels and decrease insulin resistance. Eat a teaspoon or two a day. That's also a weight loss strategy.

This is good advice and it does work, but to varying degrees for each person. However, it will not allow you to go and eat a bag of candy.

Stay away from high glycemic level carbs such as rice, rice cakes, rice crispies, etc. These will raise your blood sugar much higher than most other carbs that you consume.

Also, corticosteroid treatments(used to reduce inflammation) will cause you to have very high blood sugars for several days, possibly as long as a week, but eventually your sugars should return to normal.


Link Posted: 9/13/2010 7:39:50 PM EDT

Originally Posted By Billmanweh:
what's considered high?

165 J/K

As Rich_V pointed out:

"People with a fasting glucose level of 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Having IFG means a person has an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes but does not have it yet. A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means a person has diabetes."


Link Posted: 9/13/2010 7:51:02 PM EDT
Originally Posted By 1Andy2:
I'm no doctor or nutritional specialist, but I'd say you might try eating less sugar and carbs.


This and get some good vigorous exercise.

A few weeks ago I had not eaten for three days but had a very stressful period and my blood sugar went higher than I have ever seen it. Then it bottomed out and I felt like absolute crap.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 8:01:47 PM EDT
Originally Posted By KnightofTheOldeCode:
IO could make to improve my blood glucose level? Thanks!


get this book 'Sugar Busters" take supplemental Cinnamon capsules. Cut out white breads starches and sugar,ride a bike. But do get a copy of that book..

Link Posted: 9/13/2010 8:12:21 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 9/13/2010 8:13:03 PM EDT by Kuraki]
I'm going to disagree that a single "fasting" (when did he eat the night before?) blood glucose level, from a meter of unknown quality, with 2 year old test strips, means you have diabetes.

Do you present any other symptoms? After a meal, are you light headed? Does drinking soda or juice, or eating a lot of starches make you sleepy? Sweating? Do you have trouble speaking, or get shakes?

Have your A1C level checked. No MD is going to diagnose you with diabetes based on one blood sugar reading. Get some fresh test strips for your meter, and begin doing a daily blood sugar check when you wake up. Keep a log of the values presented.

If you want to bring your blood glucose down, and you're NOT diabetic, it's a simple matter of reducing your carbohydrate intake, mainly your simple carbohydrate intake, and increasing exercise. More oatmeal, less frosted sugar pops.

FWIW, prior to trying to alter my lifestyle and be a healthier individual, I would routinely have 115-125 blood glucose levels. Since losing about 40 lbs, maintaining an exercise level, and eating more complex carbohydrates, I routinely test at 80 in the morning before breakfast.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 8:28:21 PM EDT
I have a co-worker (who is an MD) who is a diabetic (and a marathon-runner). He does not attempt to manage his diabetes himself –– he has an internist who does that for him.

If your glucose is 166, it's time to call your doc for back-up, if for no other reason than to have your glucose re-checked. Do not attempt to handle this yourself.
Link Posted: 9/13/2010 11:45:07 PM EDT
Originally Posted By AeroE:
Originally Posted By Boru:
Exorcise will bring your blood sugar down.


That's for demons, not donuts.



Oh man I`m more tired than I thought.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 12:34:06 AM EDT
A good ol-fashioned blood-letting?
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 12:55:14 AM EDT
Technically, a low carb diet that induces ketosis should stabilize blood sugar levels by its very nature.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 1:00:13 AM EDT
I am slow, I am type II, and I am the first to say "Dibs on Guns!!"

Quit eating anything starchy. THat's a good place to start.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 3:43:08 AM EDT
Originally Posted By Billmanweh:
what's considered high?




On the day I was diagnosed (which was around late october or early november of last year) my blood glucose level was in the low 700's––––IIRC, it was around 715 or 718. My doc was.....ummmmm.....not amused....at my condition.


My A1C results were around a 13 or 13.5, IIRC. I had a new A1C test just last week and it came in at 8.5 and my doc says she wants me to shoot for 7.0 or less by the end of the year. I also need to lose about 50 pounds of excess weight. For me, the weight loss will be the hardest part.


My symptoms last year was excessive thirst, excessive urination, dry mouth and fatigue. When I got started on my prescriptions my eyesight went to hell, too, and my eye doctor said that was due to my glucose level dropping so far so fast in a short period of time. I started in the low 700's and in a period of about 2 weeks it went all the way down into the low-to-mid 100's and my eye doctor said that a massive, quick, drop like that would cause my eyes to be blurry as they adjusted to the new glucose levels. I spent about a 2 week period of time basically blind. Reading small print was practically impossible for me.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 3:53:57 AM EDT
Originally Posted By KnightofTheOldeCode:
IO could make to improve my blood glucose level? Thanks!


As it turns out, Caffeine elevates BS. Ask me how *I* found out...

Link Posted: 9/14/2010 3:56:18 AM EDT
Originally Posted By KnightofTheOldeCode:

I got a free meter a couple years ago. went to the doc and had blood work done and it was a little high he said. I checked today when I woke up and the meter read 166. Is that really high?

I've been losing weight and have my bp under control.

What are some ways to get it under control, I do not want to start medicine if I can help it, I know things only go down hill from there.

Originally Posted By CnA:
Just how do you know if your blood sugar is high today?

The only way I know of is to use a meter, but with no past history, you would not have the need for one.





That's not really high. Last night, I was at 474. Woke up this morning at 302. Still trying to determine my exact Insulin dosage, so I figure this might take a bit...

On the plus side, my weight's dropping nicely on the new diet.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 4:46:44 AM EDT
I just started growing and making my own stevia sweetener.
Stevia is a "smart" food. It lowers high bp but does not effect low bp.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 6:56:32 AM EDT
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 7:00:52 AM EDT

Originally Posted By Mr-T:
Technically, a low carb diet that induces ketosis should stabilize blood sugar levels by its very nature.

Hi Mr-T, Are you diabetic? Just curious, not trying to start anything. The ketosis raised a flag for me. When I checked that fountain of knowledge wikipedia, (I was too lazy to start going through my medical literature) I found the article below. I guess I was thinking acidosis. I agree with the low carb diet and I do that myself.


Ketoacidosis

All ketone bodies are acidic, but, during normal conditions, the blood can buffer to keep the pH of the blood within normal range. Severe ketosis that causes blood pH to drop below 7.35 can occur as an effect of diabetes or alcohol poisoning, causing an acidosis, more specific, ketoacidosis.

Ketoacidosis is a medical condition usually caused by diabetes and accompanied by dehydration, hyperglycemia, ketonuria, and increased levels of glucagon. The high-glucagon, low-insulin serum levels signal the body to produce more glucose via gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, and ketone bodies via ketogenesis. High levels of glucose causes the failure of tubular reabsorption in the kidneys, causing water to leak into the tubules in a process called osmotic diuresis, causing dehydration and further exacerbating the acidosis.

Link Posted: 9/14/2010 7:04:55 AM EDT
[Last Edit: 9/14/2010 7:05:10 AM EDT by 1387Delta]

Originally Posted By MedPig:
Originally Posted By KnightofTheOldeCode:
IO could make to improve my blood glucose level? Thanks!


As it turns out, Caffeine elevates BS. Ask me how *I* found out...


That sucks so much! I can't get off the stuff (Actually I don't want to, I enjoy that addiction). I drink 3 cups a day and adjust my exercise, diet, and meds so I can still drink it and keep my BGL under control.

I know it affects my blood glucose levels, but I don't understand why. I haven't checked the diabetes websites lately, but the last time I checked, there were conflicting opinions. I even switched to straight decaf, which I think helped some.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 7:07:04 AM EDT

Originally Posted By AeroE:
Now you've had a long list of good advice, really bad advice, and the usual GD comedy to read.

You should have an appointment set up by now, either with your regular doc or an endocrinologist. During your meeting, tell the doc you want to see a dietician. The dietician will give you more educational info about the nutritional component of treating your diabetes, and train you to estimate portion size without screwing around with measuring cups and scales.

Excercise makes a huge difference. Just a nice casual walk helps. Get the weight off.

You'll have to rely on your doc for advice about the medicine you take. Pay attention to the side effects. Most likely he'll want you to test three times every day, at least for a while.


This is good advice.. Take it!
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 9:03:32 AM EDT
I can only speak for myself.

Cinnamon? cinnamon only works for people that have diabetes due to a chromium deficiency. It DOES NOT help everyone with diabetes.

I have found that exercise right after eating lowers my blood sugar. I suspect that the body needs to burn the sugar before it can attach to the red blood cells. Once the sugar attaches to the blood cell, you have lost the ability to help yourself. If I exercise without eating, my blood sugar rises! My theory here is that my body is converting fat into sugar to "feed" my muscles. My advice: learn to exercise right after eating if possible.

I have recently begun working out with my daughter. I was using a treadmill for 30 minutes but I am now doing muscle building exercises. I am noticing that my blood sugar is dropping faster with muscle building than cardio. That may be just me though. I theorize that my muscles are burning sugar all day long instead of just burning sugar during the exercise. I'm not fully convinced of that though. Find what works for you.

I also starting eating less food. We are told to eat mostly carbs in diabetes class but I try to avoid them anyway. Look at labels and get used to looking at them. Try and limit your carbs to 60-75 a meal. I heard that alcohol lowers sugar levels. I looked into that and tested it in my diet. I found that ONE beer WITH the meal helps lower my levels. It does not work after or before the meal. I only know that it does work (for me).

Things I learned: There is no such thing as borderline or pre-diabetes. You either are or you are not. Anything else is controlled or uncontrolled diabetes.

I read that your meter is a few years old. Are you sure it is calibrated? They provide a serum with the meters to make sure the meter is giving good numbers.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 9:07:28 AM EDT
Buy the Atkins book and read it carefully. It will explain what you've done to your body, and what you need to do from here on out.
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 9:15:46 AM EDT
166 mg/dl is fine for a random glucose, if that is a fasting glucose I would be a little more worried, did you eat or drink anything before you did your finger stick? If so how long before?
Link Posted: 9/14/2010 9:45:24 AM EDT
Ketosis and Ketoacidosis are two different things.

Ketosis is something that almost everyone experiences on a daily basis. It is simply fat being broke down by the liver and released as ketones into the blood to be used as fuel. In a healthy person, it is a regulated process, and is no big deal.

Ketoacidosis is an unregulated release of ketones into the blood in type 1 diabetics, because of the absence of insulin. It is dangerous, but it is not a threat for a healthy person.
Arrow Left Previous Page
Page / 2
Top Top