I'm finally getting around to PS2010 - ran out of excuses. This is a repetative as everyone warned me it would be. Had to do some definitions last night so I though I might as well post them up here too in cases anybody could benefit from the ride-along. These are not my words, but paraphrased or quoted from the text I had to buy.
From Chapter 1:
1. Politics – Process of resolving conflicts and deciding who gets what, when and how.
2. Government – Institution within which decisions are made that resolve conflicts or allocate benefits & privileges.
3. Aristocracy – literally translated, “rule by the best” – in reality, rule by the upper class.
4. Anarchy - Absence of any form of political authority or cohesive principle. Political disorder and confusion.
5. Democracy – Type of government in which political power is vested in the people.
6. Direct democracy – System of government where the people make political decisions directly.
7. Representative democracy – System of government where the people elect officials who make laws.
8. Ideology – Comprehensive set of beliefs about the nature of people and the role of an institution or government.
9. Liberalism – A set of beliefs that includes the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil rights, and tolerance for political and social change.
10. Conservatism – A set of beliefs that includes a limited role for the national government in helping individuals, support for traditional values and lifestyles, and a cautious response to change.
11. Legitimacy – Popular acceptance of the right and power of a government or other entity to exercise authority.
12. Power - The ability or official capacity to exercise control; authority. A person, group, or nation having great influence or control over others: the western powers. The might of a nation, political organization, or similar group.
13. Elite theory – A perspective holding that society is ruled by a small number of people who exercise power to further their self-interest.
14. Dominant culture – The values, customs, and language established by the group or groups that traditionally have controlled politics and government in a society.
15. Equality – As a political value, the idea that all people are of equal worth.
16. Authority – The right and power of a government or other entity to enforce its decisions and compel obedience.
17. Compliance –
18. Limited government – The principle that the powers of government should be limited, usually by institutional checks.
19. Pluralism – A theory that views politics as a conflict among interest groups. Bargaining and compromise characterize political decision-making.
1. Recall – A procedure allowing the people to vote to dismiss an elected official from state office before his term has expired.
2. Referendum – An electoral device whereby legislative or constitutional measures are referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval.
3. Totalitarian government (regime) – A form of government that controls all aspects of the political and social life of a nation.
From Chapter 2:
1. Confederation – A political system in which states or regional governments retain ultimate authority except for those powers they expressly delegate to a central government. A voluntary association of independent states, in which the member states agree to limited restraints on their freedom of action.
2. Checks and balances – A major principle of the American system of government whereby each branch of the government can check the actions of the others.
3. Federalist – The name given to one who was in favor of the adoption of the U.S. Constitution and the creation of a federal union with a strong central government.
4. Anti-Federalist – An individual who opposed the ratification of the new Constitution in 1787. The Anti-Federalists were opposed to a strong central government.
5. Judicial review – The power of the Supreme Court or any court to declare unconstitutional federal or state laws and other acts of government.
6. Social contract – A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
7. Separation of powers – The principle of dividing governmental powers among different branches of government.
8. Electoral college – A group of persons called electors selected by the voters in each state and the District of Columbia (D.C.); this group officially elects the President and the Vice President of the United States. The number of electors in each state is equal to the number of each state’s representatives in both chambers of Congress. The twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution grants D.C. as many electors as the state with the smallest population.
9. Natural rights – Rights held to be inherent in natural law, not dependent on governments. John Locke stated that natural law, being superior to human law, specifies certain rights of “life, liberty, and property.” These rights, altered to become “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” are asserted in the Declaration of Independence.
10. Supremacy doctrine – A doctrine that asserts the priority of national law over state laws. This principle is rooted in Article VI of the Constitution, which provides that the Constitution, the laws passed by the national government under its constitutional powers, and all treaties constitute the supreme law of the land.
11. Unicameral legislature – A legislature with only one legislative chamber, as opposed to a bicameral (two-chamber) legislature, such as the U.S. Congress. Today, Nebraska is the only state in the Union with a unicameral legislature.
12. Federal system – A system of government in which power is divided between a central government and regional, or subdivisional, governments. Each level must have some domain in which its policies are dominant and some genuine political or constitutional guarantee of its authority.
13. Great compromise – The compromise between the New Jersey and Virginia plans that created one chamber of Congress based on population and one chamber representing each state equally; also called the Connecticut Compromise.
14. Ratification – Formal approval.
From Chapter 3:
1. Unitary system – A centralized governmental system in which local or subdivisional governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central government
2. Concurrent powers – Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.
3. Supremacy clause – The Constitutional provision that makes the Constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws.
4. Cooperative federalism – The theory that the states and the national government should cooperate in solving problems.
5. Dual federalism – A system in which the states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres. The doctrine looks on nation and state as co-equal sovereign powers. Neither the state nor the national government should interfere in the other’s sphere.
6. Picket-Fence federalism – A model of federalism in which specific programs and policies (depicted as vertical pickets in a picket fence) involve all levels of government – national, state, and local (depicted as the horizontal boards in a picket fence).
7. Enumerated powers – Powers specifically granted to the national government by the Constitution. The first seventeen clauses of Article I, section 8, specify most of the enumerated powers of the national government.
8. Federal mandate – A requirement in federal legislation that forces states and municipalities to comply with certain rules.
9. Confederal system – A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.
10. Necessary and Proper clause – The clause in Article I, section 8, that grants Congress the power to do whatever is necessary to execute its specifically delegated powers.
11. Categorical grants – Federal grants to state or local governments that are for specific programs or projects.
12. Block grants – Federal programs that provide funds to state and local governments for general functional areas, such as criminal justice or mental-health programs.
13. Commerce clause – The section of the Constitution in which Congress is given the power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries.
14. Police power – The authority to legislate for the protection of the health, morals, safety, and welfare of the people. In the U.S., most police power is reserved to the states. (See 10th Amendment)
"Marines are agents of wrath, to bring justice on wrong-doers or evil-doers."
"I'm so mean, I make medicine sick!"
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