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Posted: 7/25/2007 9:23:29 AM EDT
http://www.policeone.com/legal/articles/1292870/



The camera doesn’t lie, right? Wel-l-l-l-l-l-l.....


Brief, dark, and grainy, the video image is a punch to the gut.

A California sheriff’s deputy trying to detain a subject who’s on the ground after a high-speed chase says to him, “Get up! Get up!” The man says, “Ok, I’m gonna get up,” and starts to rise. Without another word, the deputy shoots him, 3 times in quick succession. [Read the news report]

With millions of others, you probably became a vicarious eye-witness when the scene was telecast over and over world-wide. Be honest. The man complied with an officer’s command, and the shooting was not an unintentional discharge. Didn’t it look like a slam-dunk case of egregious abuse of force?

Late last month [6/28/07] after less than 4 hours’ deliberation following a trial that lasted over a month, a jury acquitted the deputy, Ivory Webb Jr., of attempted voluntary manslaughter and firearms assault. The charges could have sent him to prison for 18 years. For people who knew nothing more about the case than what they’d seen on TV or the Internet, the verdict seemed a puzzlement, if not an outrageous miscarriage of justice.

But jurors said the tale of the video took on a whole different flavor when considered in context with circumstances that were little known publicly until Webb’s trial.

Dr. Bill Lewinski, executive director of the Force Science Research Center at Minnesota State University-Mankato, was part of the defense team. He was brought into the case “to explain the human factors behind the shooting,” based on his expertise as a behavioral scientist and on FSRC’s unique studies of lethal-force dynamics.

In a recent interview with Force Science News, Lewinski reprised his courtroom testimony and his insider’s knowledge of the pressure-cooker confrontation that embroiled Ivory Webb and resulted in his becoming the first LEO ever charged criminally for an on-duty shooting in the history of San Bernardino County.

“It was important to paint a picture of what happened from Webb’s perspective,” Lewinski says. “The video was so vivid, so seemingly clear-cut, that people didn’t properly factor in what led up to the shooting.”

The Players.

Ivory Webb was 46 years old at the time of the shooting, a former college football player (Rose Bowl ’82), the son of a retired California police chief, and a veteran of nearly 10 years with the San Bernardino County Sheriff’s Department. Most of his career had been spent as a jail officer. Although he’d been on the street for over 4 years, “he had never been the primary officer on a felony vehicle stop,” Lewinski says. “He performed pretty much as a backup officer.”

The subjects he confronted at the shooting scene were Luis Escobedo, 22, who had a rap sheet from previous run-ins with police and would later be arrested for CCW, and Elio Carrion, 21, an Air Force senior airman and security officer.

The Chase.

On the last weekend night in January, 2006, Luis Escobedo and Elio Carrion were at a late-night barbeque in Montclair, east of Los Angeles, celebrating Carrion’s recent return from a 6-month stint in Iraq. They’d been “heavily” consuming beer and tequila when they decided to take a fellow partygoer’s Corvette for a spin. Both had blood alcohol levels of more than double the state’s legal limit.

Escobedo took the wheel (although he had no driver’s license) and on a “lightly trafficked industrial road” near some railroad tracks, he opened up the sleek muscle car to see how fast it would go. Soon they passed a San Bernardino deputy who gave pursuit but couldn’t keep up.

Webb, returning to patrol from another call, heard radio traffic about the chase and moments later saw the Corvette “coming directly at me. If I hadn’t swerved into the other lane, they would have smashed right into me.”

Webb barreled after them and soon was driving over 100 mph to keep up. The Corvette screeched around a corner, caromed off curbs, and at one point “spun around and came directly at me a second time.” Before colliding, it suddenly smoked into a U-turn and wove wildly from one side of the street to another, then crashed into a cinder block wall facing opposing traffic and “hung up there.” The chase had ended in the municipality of Chino.

When Webb pulled up, the vehicle was shaking as the occupants tried to force the doors open, he said. The trunk lid had popped up from the impact, blocking the view from behind. He nosed in slightly toward the right rear of the Corvette and stepped out of his patrol car.

The Confrontation.

“Considering that they’d played chicken with him twice and had shown no regard for human safety with their reckless speeding, Webb reasonably assessed the car’s occupants as really dangerous,” Lewinski says. “He had his full uniform on, his overheads were flashing, and he had his gun and flashlight out, so there was no mistaking his authority.

"Carrion began to exit the vehicle and took a step in the direction of Webb’s patrol car. Webb ordered him to show his hands clearly. Carrion didn’t. Webb ordered him to get down. Carrion didn’t. Inside the vehicle, Escobedo kept reaching his hands into areas Webb could not see.” The deputy’s commands to both subjects were repeated in a stream, with no compliance. In his frustration and concern, Webb ratcheted up his language with liberal infusions of profanity.

At trial a retired LASD lieutenant testified as a tactical expert for the prosecution and condemned Webb for not remaining “calm and assertive,” as officers are trained to do. But Lewinski took Webb’s words out of the context of antiseptic Monday morning quarterbacking and put them in the context of his on-the-spot fears.

The chase had led the deputy into an unfamiliar section of Chino and, essentially, “he was lost,” Lewinski says. He knew the street he was on but in the blur of the pursuit he’d had a hard time tracking the cross streets. Several times he named the nearest intersection incorrectly when radioing for help. Deputies trying to reach him sometimes cited directions and their own locations erroneously, too.

The two suspects could overhear the radio jabber. “Webb knew that they knew his back up couldn’t find him and that he was all alone with two drunken young men who were not complying with any of his orders,” Lewinski says.

The pair was physically separated, so Webb constantly had to shift his focus and his flashlight from one to the other to keep tabs on their actions. And they kept trying verbally to intimidate him, Lewinski explains. “Carrion at one point told the deputy, ‘I’ve spent more time than you in the fuckin’ police, in the fuckin’ military.’

“Webb recognized all this from his jail experience as a common tactic among gangbangers: separate, keep up a barrage of chatter to distract, then attack. Webb ordered them to shut up, but they didn’t.”

At a point when Carrion had gotten within his reactionary gap, Webb kicked him to take him to the ground. (The prosecution’s expert would claim later that police are not trained to kick suspects because it puts them off-balance. But Lewinski points out that in fact kicks and leg strikes are common staples in contemporary defensive tactics.) On the ground, Carrion was propped up on his arms, “controlled to some degree” but not proned out like Webb wanted.

The grinding crash of the speeding Corvette against the wall and the flashing lights and all the yelling that followed had alerted a used car salesman living across the street that something worth filming was going down. He grabbed his Sony digital zoom camera and started recording after Carrion climbed out of the car.

This man, a Cuban refugee, was wanted on old felony warrants for aggravated assault in Florida. His past would surface after his sensational footage saturated the airwaves.

But for now, his camera was about to capture what photographers call “the money shot.”

The Shooting.

When the video was first reviewed and broadcast, the figures of Webb and Carrion could be grossly seen on the darkened street, the deputy with his gun out standing over the semi-grounded suspect. But subtleties were hard to distinguish. The audio track, too, was tough to make out, although what could be heard sounded discouragingly incriminating.

Carrion: We’re here on your side. We mean you no harm.

Webb: OK, get up! (inaudible) Get up!

Carrion: OK, I’m just gonna get up.

Carrion starts to move up. Three shots ring out from Webb’s .45. Carrion is hit in the left shoulder, the left thigh, and the left ribs. He’s critically wounded but survives.

The digital recording was “enhanced” by an FBI laboratory to reveal more visual detail. Through ultra-sophisticated technology of David Notowitz, a video expert engaged by Webb’s attorneys, it was then enhanced even further, to the point that images were recovered from a section of the recording that seemingly had been completely whited out by the amateur cameraman ineptly fiddling with the controls.

Webb had experienced difficulty articulating precisely what happened just before he started shooting. In Lewinski’s opinion, he suffered memory problems that are not uncommon after high-intensity officer-involved shootings. “But when the enhanced footage was slowed down and time coded so we could study the action fragment by fragment, I became convinced he was reacting instinctively to a legitimate perceived threat.”

As Carrion braces on his hands, resistant to going fully to the ground, he first can be seen jabbing a hand up toward Webb’s gun. The weapon is well within his grasp, but he quickly lowers his hand without attempting a grab.

Then the video confirms that he twice reaches his hand inside his black Raiders jacket. Carrion would claim on the witness stand that he was just pointing to his chest. “But the enhanced image shows his hand buried in the jacket up to the knuckles,” Lewinski says. “It was definitely inside.”

Less than a second later, Webb jerks his gun barrel up slightly as if motioning with it as he commands, “Get up! Get up!”

“He’s talking to the hand, focusing on it,” Lewinski says. “What I sincerely believe he was thinking was, ‘Get your hand up,’ meaning get it away from where you may have a weapon hidden and out where I can see it. But the words came out different than his thought.

“Some of our studies have shown that when officers feel they are in control of a situation, they tend to give clear and relevant commands. But when they feel out of control, their commands often deteriorate. For Ivory Webb, that was an enormously stressful situation and there was nothing he felt in control of.

“Under stress and time compression, people commonly experience slips between thought and speech.” En Route to the trial, for example, Lewinski asked a harried airline ticket agent for directions to a travelers’ lounge. “Down there,” she said—and pointed up. Even the prosecutor while cross-examining Lewinski misspoke in referencing something, and apologized for it. “It’s easy to do, isn’t it?” Lewinski softly replied.

Lewinski cited a case of an officer who, facing a suspect with a knife, repeatedly shouted “Show me your hands!” even though both hands were visible. The officer was trying to say “Drop the knife” but “resorted to familiar commands from his training under stress,” Lewinski explained.

In the uncertain and rapidly evolving circumstances on the street in Chino, Carrion reaching into his jacket had “extremely threatening implications,” Lewinski says. “He turned out not to be armed, but Webb couldn’t know that. For the first time in the encounter, Carrion obeyed the command he heard. He began to rise up and a little forward, like starting to lunge. Webb had already made the decision to fire, thinking his life was in jeopardy, and pulled the trigger.”

A tactics expert who volunteered for the defense, Sgt. Kenton Ferrin of Inglewood (CA) PD, said he would have shot under the same circumstances. Webb “thought he was going to die,” Ferrin testified.

The prosecutor’s expert, however, asserted that each of Webb’s shots was a deliberate decision, bolstering the contention that the deputy in effect had committed a cold, calculating execution. But Lewinski pointed out that the time-coded video enhancement showed there was just 6/10 of a second between each round. He explained that FSRC’s time-and-motion studies had proven that in that tight sequencing, with both the officer and the subject moving slightly, there’s no possibility of conscious decision-making prompting each shot. “At that point, after the first round, it was just an instinctive process.”

“The purpose of Dr. Lewinski’s testimony,” says Webb’s attorney Michael Schwartz of the Santa Monica law firm Silver, Hadden, Silver, Wexler and Levine, “was to help the jury see that behavior the prosecution considered grounds for suspicion and criminal action could, in fact, be understood as common human behavior in circumstances of extreme stress.”

The Outcome.

The first poll inside the jury room was 11 for acquittal, 1 for conviction. The dissenter soon changed his mind. When the verdict was announced, Ivory Webb burst into tears and praised God.

That was just the first of the legal challenges he faces. Elio Carrion and his family have asked federal authorities to bring criminal charges against Webb, and a civil suit has of course been filed.

Meanwhile, with cell phone cameras and camcorders proliferating, a profusion of controversial police actions seems destined in days ahead to be seen and judged by millions who understand little about them.

After the Webb verdict, a reporter for the Associated Press interviewed Eugene O’Donnell, a former cop and prosecutor who now teaches police studies at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City.

“Videos are drenched with caveats,” O’Donnell cautioned. “One thing we’ve learned about videos is that there are often missing pieces.”

Link Posted: 7/25/2007 9:33:42 AM EDT
Someone post this in GD
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 11:38:44 AM EDT
They'll just say we are apologists.
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 11:52:05 AM EDT
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 11:59:04 AM EDT
Side note:

What ever happened to the "Cuban refugee" wanted on felony warrants?
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:08:00 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 7/25/2007 12:48:05 PM EDT by NorCal_LEO]
<Remarks removed>
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:15:15 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 7/25/2007 12:52:34 PM EDT by NorCal_LEO]
height=8
Originally Posted By phantomghost:
<Remarks removed>


He wasn't shot in the back
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:23:17 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 7/25/2007 12:57:59 PM EDT by NorCal_LEO]

Originally Posted By LockingBlock:

Originally Posted By phantomghost:
<Remarks removed>


He wasn't shot in the back


Back left shoulder, back left thigh, back left rib cage
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:34:43 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 7/25/2007 12:53:40 PM EDT by NorCal_LEO]

Originally Posted By phantomghost:
<Remarks removed>


Just out of curiousity, what experience(s) do you draw that conclusion from? TV shows and Playstation games don't count.
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:36:21 PM EDT

Originally Posted By LockingBlock:
http://www.policeone.com/legal/articles/1292870/

That was just the first of the legal challenges he faces. Elio Carrion and his family have asked federal authorities to bring criminal charges against Webb, and a civil suit has of course been filed.


Thats fucking bullshit. Whether your guilty or not if a jury finds you not guilty it should be over. The fact that the family can ask the Federal Government to file more charges after a not guilty verdict is crap.
This justice system is fucked up....
OJ can kill 2 people and walk away a free man. Had Goldman killed OJ and found not guilty he would have been charged under federal statutes and given 10 years for violating OJs civil rights. Rights that every American don't seem to share....
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:39:01 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 7/25/2007 12:51:49 PM EDT by NorCal_LEO]

Originally Posted By phantomghost:
<Remarks removed>



Yes, to someone who as learned all thier police tactics from ChiPs, and combat tactics from MASH, that would seem bad.......................



Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:43:59 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 7/25/2007 12:51:12 PM EDT by NorCal_LEO]

Originally Posted By OLY-M4gery:

Originally Posted By phantomghost:
<Remarks removed>



Yes, to someone who as learned all thier police tactics from ChiPs, and combat tactics from MASH, that would seem bad.......................





Here's some TV for you to learn something....................

www.youtube.com/watch?v=jmKR6evZRQQ&mode=related&search=

See if you can figure out what real life leasson is illustrated by that clip.
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:47:30 PM EDT
I have watched this with a lot of interest as I am both an Air Force cop and a civilian cop. In fact I worked with an NCO that used to be the supervisor of the Airman that was shot. He had PCSed to where I worked with him before the shooting occurred.

I am glad things worked out for the Deputy. Trust me when I say that some of the younger Airmen that work in the Cop career field are thugs straight off the street and if they don't change they end doing something to get kicked out. Security Forces has become the dumping ground for the less than desireables in the Air Force. I guess they figure anyone can work a gate or guard a plane.
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 12:49:47 PM EDT
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 1:19:53 PM EDT
That article cuts away ALOT of the fog surrounding the video, glad the officer was found NOT GUILTY!!!
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 1:28:25 PM EDT
I wasn't surprised to see a jury let the shooter walk.
That's one screwed up county. The good folks there reelected a Superior Court judge after he was disciplined for destroying evidence showing he was a child molester.
(Google Craig Kaminski for further details) (Again, millions paid out to cover the damages)
One sicko place. Also a major port of entry during the eighties for the 'Company' off the books income program involving Freeway Ricky Ross et. al.
God save us all....
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 1:51:10 PM EDT

Originally Posted By SevenPaul7:
I wasn't surprised to see a jury let the shooter walk.
That's one screwed up county. The good folks there reelected a Superior Court judge after he was disciplined for destroying evidence showing he was a child molester.
(Google Craig Kaminski for further details) (Again, millions paid out to cover the damages)
One sicko place. Also a major port of entry during the eighties for the 'Company' off the books income program involving Freeway Ricky Ross et. al.
God save us all....

So, what you saw on the news convinced you the cop was guilty? There's no chance that the jury saw the whole story and made a correct decision? I guess they should have had you as a juror, I'm sure you would have got it right...
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 3:41:19 PM EDT
I found it interesting during the trial all the press coverage was of the prosecution bascially none of the defense.

I knew the defense had it's own experts and the enhanced video but none of it was covered.

It was obvious this case was going to be a not guilty verdict.
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 4:05:58 PM EDT

Originally Posted By RDP:
Someone post this in GD



http://www.jobrelatedstuff.com/forums/topic.html?b=1&f=5&t=601294&page=1

Link Posted: 7/25/2007 4:52:59 PM EDT

Originally Posted By packinheavy:
I am glad things worked out for the Deputy. Trust me when I say that some of the younger Airmen that work in the Cop career field are thugs straight off the street and if they don't change they end doing something to get kicked out. Security Forces has become the dumping ground for the less than desireables in the Air Force. I guess they figure anyone can work a gate or guard a plane.

I'm not a fan of the USAF, but I have to say that most of the SPs I worked with for a year while we were tasked with helping with base security were good people. No one that I wiorked with was of a questionable nature, although in general their military bearing ( as with most with most AF personnel ) needed some work.
Link Posted: 7/25/2007 5:28:04 PM EDT
Good read. I know when I first saw the video it looked pretty bad. That article sure clears things up.
Link Posted: 7/26/2007 12:49:58 AM EDT
[Last Edit: 7/26/2007 12:52:02 AM EDT by SGB]
Link Posted: 7/26/2007 2:10:30 AM EDT
[Last Edit: 7/27/2007 9:08:50 AM EDT by NorCal_LEO]
<Read your IM. -NorCal_LEO>
Link Posted: 7/26/2007 2:12:51 AM EDT
Lewinski is the expert in this field. His studies in the reaction times and decision making process involved both in the decision to start shooting, as well as the decision to stop shooting and the time lags for each should be mandatory material for every grand jury in the nation.
Link Posted: 7/26/2007 8:45:15 PM EDT
The Good Lord has blessed every street police officer with Bill Lewinski's talent, knowledge, and drive to do right by us.

I'm going to make a strongly worded plea at my next guild meeting that we should make a donation to his institute's endowment fund.
Link Posted: 7/27/2007 8:48:26 AM EDT

Originally Posted By Boru:
Oh it`s all clear to me now, poor Officer Webb. The jury bought THAT? I thought i was reading a script to days of our lives.



You're not in GD troll. Read the forum rules and comply or STAY OUT OF OUR FORUM.
Link Posted: 7/27/2007 12:25:07 PM EDT
Regardless of which side of the fence you fall on regarding whether or not Officer Webb acted properly, I can't see how his actions were criminal. He was scared, and rightly so.

One other point is that he was 100% justified in chasing and arresting these two. The suspects' actions placed them and the Officer at risk. Any fool who disobeys the verbal commands of an Officer who has them at gun point at the end of a pursuit is, at best, placing themselves in mortal danger. Even if you think he made the incorrect decision, it was not criminal.
Link Posted: 8/9/2007 9:58:01 PM EDT
TAG.
Link Posted: 8/9/2007 10:03:03 PM EDT

Originally Posted By SGB:
Untill you've walked in someones shoes it's hard to know what they perceive, most of the public will never ever have to deal with these types of situations and therefore have no base for the understanding of the complexity of life and death situations. Having been there and done that I feel for the Officers that have to experience the wrath of a public ignorant of what it takes to survive such an event.


+1


It sounds easy to just explain what happens but until you have seen your vision narrow and focus to a crystal clear pin point on a suspect's hand with a shiny metalic silver object as you go through a door and had to decide right then and there if it is a gun...or a cell phone as he points it in your direction while moving back...it just ain't the same as words.

Heck, I'll freely admit that the first time I was shot at, I did nothing for a good 5 seconds...I was too shocked that I was actually being shot at and the first thing that came to mind was "Doesn't he know who we are"... After that, it got much better and the second time was smooth but that first time was a real eye opener.

Video is a blessing and a curse...it shows some of what happened but lots of people aren't trained to understand what is happening on the video
Link Posted: 8/9/2007 11:29:48 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 8/9/2007 11:38:20 PM EDT by babirl]

Originally Posted By tc556guy:

Originally Posted By packinheavy:
I am glad things worked out for the Deputy. Trust me when I say that some of the younger Airmen that work in the Cop career field are thugs straight off the street and if they don't change they end doing something to get kicked out. Security Forces has become the dumping ground for the less than desireables in the Air Force. I guess they figure anyone can work a gate or guard a plane.

I'm not a fan of the USAF, but I have to say that most of the SPs I worked with for a year while we were tasked with helping with base security were good people. No one that I wiorked with was of a questionable nature, although in general their military bearing ( as with most with most AF personnel ) needed some work.


I'm still finishing a few final parts of my 20-years of AF duties tonight (not cop-related), but tc556guy 's comment might rank right up there in my "Top 10 stupid things I've ever read"! I'll hope it's "stress-related" and please understand where I'm coming from...

I wish ALL of you the best, have MANY cops in my life, and I can't stand the "f-ed" up kids/"dumb asses" we have like those involved in this story of sadness...

I'm outta here, but "tc556guy" please think before "bashing"!

God Speed "brudders" -- MOST of us are sworn professionals in one way or another!

B2

ETA, I wasn't "attacking" and hoping to clarify...
Link Posted: 8/10/2007 1:54:15 PM EDT

Originally Posted By babirl:

Originally Posted By tc556guy:

Originally Posted By packinheavy:
I am glad things worked out for the Deputy. Trust me when I say that some of the younger Airmen that work in the Cop career field are thugs straight off the street and if they don't change they end doing something to get kicked out. Security Forces has become the dumping ground for the less than desireables in the Air Force. I guess they figure anyone can work a gate or guard a plane.

I'm not a fan of the USAF, but I have to say that most of the SPs I worked with for a year while we were tasked with helping with base security were good people. No one that I wiorked with was of a questionable nature, although in general their military bearing ( as with most with most AF personnel ) needed some work.


I'm still finishing a few final parts of my 20-years of AF duties tonight (not cop-related), but tc556guy 's comment might rank right up there in my "Top 10 stupid things I've ever read"! I'll hope it's "stress-related" and please understand where I'm coming from...

I wish ALL of you the best, have MANY cops in my life, and I can't stand the "f-ed" up kids/"dumb asses" we have like those involved in this story of sadness...

I'm outta here, but "tc556guy" please think before "bashing"!

God Speed "brudders" -- MOST of us are sworn professionals in one way or another!

B2

ETA, I wasn't "attacking" and hoping to clarify...


Nor was I attacking. My comments were accurate.
Link Posted: 8/10/2007 5:41:17 PM EDT

The fact that the family can ask the Federal Government to file more charges after a not guilty verdict is crap.


They can ask, it's a free country. That doesn't mean the feds will indict. They can't try him on the shooting, anyway, that would be double jeopardy.
Link Posted: 8/12/2007 4:52:59 PM EDT
Read the article on this case in this month's PORAC news magazine. It explains what happened in the courtroom much better.
Link Posted: 8/12/2007 5:34:36 PM EDT
Its great to see someone come in that can really explain what happens during the moments leading up to and after the situation.

So many people just don't / won't understand what really happens.

Good to see Webb found not guilty
Link Posted: 8/12/2007 5:51:42 PM EDT
[Last Edit: 8/12/2007 5:54:19 PM EDT by thebomber]
All I can say is....too bad we all aren't judged the same way....I mean in a self defense situation......I believe he thought his life was in danger and acted IAW how any of us would have. There are however, folks behind bars for shooting some one in their house that made them feel the same way. Too bad this rightful defense hasn't been more widely used/accepted.

Bomber
Link Posted: 8/12/2007 6:01:36 PM EDT

Originally Posted By tdogg77:

The fact that the family can ask the Federal Government to file more charges after a not guilty verdict is crap.


They can ask, it's a free country. That doesn't mean the feds will indict. They can't try him on the shooting, anyway, that would be double jeopardy.


If they file charges it will be civil rights violations. The same way they got the Rodney King officers after they were found not guilty after a jury trial.
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