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1/25/2018 7:38:29 AM
Posted: 2/28/2006 6:11:18 PM EST
Found this on my own


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[[Template:'wiktionary]] January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days.

January begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Capricorn and ends in the sign of Aquarius. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation of Sagittarius and ends in the constellation of Capricornus.

January is named for Janus, the god of doors and gateways in Roman mythology.

The original Roman calendar consisted of 10 months (304 days). The Romans originally considered winter a monthless period. Circa 700 BCE Romulus' successor, King Numa Pompilius, added the months of January and February allowing the calendar to equal a standard lunar year (364 days). A Roman superstition against'even numbers resulted in the addition of one day thus equalling 365 days. Although March was originally the first month, January usurped that position because that was when consuls were usually chosen.

The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day.

Historical names for January include its original Roman designation, Ianuarius, the Saxon term Wulf-monath (meaning wolf month) and Charlemagne's designation Wintarmanoth (winter / cold month). In old Japanese calendar, the month is called Mutsuki (睦月). The second day of the month is known as Hatsuyume (初夢) and the 7th day as Nanakusa (七草). In Finnish, the month is called tammikuu, meaning "month of the oak". This month is in Czech called leden, that means Ice month.
January, from the Très riches heures du duc de Berry
January, from the Très riches heures du duc de Berry

The first Monday in January is known as Handsel Monday in Scotland and northern England. In England, the agricultural year began with Plough Sunday on the Sunday after Epiphany.

The Coming of age day in Japan is the second Monday of January, for those becoming 20 years old in the new calendar year. It is a national holiday. The day has existed since 1948, but fell on January 15 until 1999, when it was moved by the Japanese government in an attempt to lift the economy by making more holidays consecutive.

In the pagan wheel of the year, January ends at or near to Imbolc in the northern hemisphere and Lughnasadh in the southern hemisphere.

January4th, 1981 ‎ Hajian passageway offensive operation

‎ To occupy the heights dominating the Kasegaran pass in Gilan gharb local area, Iraq ‎employed Khosravi-Ghasre shirin-Imam Hassan to Gilanegharb axis to accomplish its ‎operation. In plans for countering Iraq both before and after the Islamic revolution, three ‎decisive mountain passes namely, patagh, Sangan, and Kasegaran were the focus ‎of particular attention, and Iraq while knowing this vital fact, exerted its major ‎effort to capture Gilane gharb city; however, the initial resistance of the jealous and ‎brave tribesmen and local residents of Gilanegharb together with I.R of Iran’s army drove ‎back the Iraqi troops from Gilanegharb and they were deployed opposite Hajian ‎passageway, Goursefid village and Chaghalvand height. In keeping with the general ‎concept and objectives of the army, Hajian passageway operation was a limited ‎offensive operation in its own kind; however , from the military perspective, the ‎objectives were selected in such a way that in case of decisive victory and the complete ‎seizure of them, remarkable superiority would be achieved to facilitate offensive ‎operations and push back Iraqi troops.Being conducted by the army’s foremost ‎headquarter in the west region, this operation started on January 4th, 1981 and after 11 ‎days it came to an end on January 15th, 1981.‎ result:‎ ‎- Some part of Bar Aftab height, south of Hajian passageway, Aw Azin height, and the ‎heights next to Chaghalvand were seized by the friendly forces.‎ ‎- More than 600 Iraqi soldiers were killed or wounded and]] 53 others were captured.‎ ‎- 26 tanks, one bulldozer, 25 vehicles and 8 guns along with one helicopter were ‎destroyed.‎

January 9th, 1981‎ Kharazm (Zolfaghar Strike) offensive operation ‎

Meimak border height with its important geographical situation is located in the west of ‎Islamic Republic of Iran with a steep gradient towards north and mild gradient towards ‎west. Having a desirable observation capabilities and a good monitoring advantage over ‎surrounding areas, it is located in Illam province.‎ ‎ Two old border stations of Halaleh and Neykhazar at the west gradient extreme were ‎destroyed at the beginning of war. Meimak Height was a matter of dispute between Iran ‎and Iraq before the Islamic Revolution and some measures were taken to demarcate the ‎borderlines but no optimum result was obtained.‎ ‎ As it was mentioned in the defensive operations in the area before, the enemy captured ‎part of Maimak height after beginning of war and stabilized its positions there. ‎Kharazm operation was planned by Kermanshah 81st armor division of IRI army under ‎Amin Operational Plan. 1st brigade of this division prepared Kharazm 6 Operational Plan ‎on December 12th, 1980 and made necessary preparation for its conduction. ‎ Khazal tribesmen considers Meimak height and western outskirts as their ancestral ‎territory and have great faith and affection for the area. Commander of operation ‎respected such faith and affection that was an important factor which played a key role ‎done by the people for reconnaissance measures and conduction of the operation. ‎ Kharazm Operation (Zolfaghar Strike) was carried out in general area of Meimak and ‎Konjancham. With unique bravery of Iranian combatants, army Aviation in particular and ‎fearless martyrs like Ahmad Keshvary important parts of Meimak height were captured ‎and major portion of borderlines was secured. In this regard, the key role of army ‎Aviation and Air force in supporting the operation was undisputed.Over a month ‎by launching heavy counter attacks, Iraq tried to retaliate against its big defeat. But ‎bravery and sacrifice of Islamic forces didn’t allow this happen and ultimutely our ‎forces were able to stabilize the occupied areas.‎ Surprise principle was responsible for this victory in such a way that even a week before ‎prior to the operation Iraqis didn’t know about the operation and had announced the ‎situation as normal for their units. ‎

Result:‎ ‎-Occupying Kalehghandi, 620, 625 and 540 heights in north and south of operational ‎areas. ‎ ‎-2,000 Iraqis were either killed or injured and 164 captured. ‎ ‎-60 tanks, personnel carriers and vehicles were destroyed. 2 airplanes and 3 helicopters ‎were shot down. 2 mountainous infantry brigades and 7th tank battalion were ‎destroyed up to 70 percent. 13 tanks, 2 personnel carriers, some Maliootka rocket ‎launchers and signal and miscellaneous equipment were seized by brave army ‎combatants
Link Posted: 2/28/2006 7:07:40 PM EST

however, the initial resistance of the jealous and brave tribesmen and local residents of Gilanegharb together with I.R of Iran’s army drove back the Iraqi troops

That's an interesting choice of words. I wonder what the brave tribesmen were jealous of - Perhaps the Iraqis were better at accessorizing their wardrobes?
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