A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
I was wondering, is there an official "US militia oath"? If we ever have the need to form a militia in the US, does an official oath exist?
we don't need one!
in short, WE the people are the militia. It is our duty to protect our country.
Personally I believe your already a member of the militia, as I think think this fella was right.
I am a General in the Militia!
Don't read too much into the "well regulated" part either - at the time it was written, well regulated actually meant "skilled" or "well trained". Sharpshooters were sometimes referred to as regulators. It means that ensuring that civilian shooters (the militia) can shoot well is critical to securing (and preserving) a free state.
It's only those who seek to determine what we may or may not own that have bastardized the true meaning into one where it refers to the National Guard. Those same bastards are definately NOT interested in a free state.
That is a phrase that is reason for the main part of the sentence. Does anyone remember how to diagram sentences?
What is the subject? "The Right"
Whose right? The militi's right? No, it is the Right "of the People". The People's Right.
What right? It is described by the words "to keep and bear arms".
And what about that right? "shall not be infringed."
It does not say, "Only the federal government may not infringe", it is more open than that, it is not limited to that.
The first phrase, "A well regulated militia being necessary to a free state," is the reason for the rest of it. Just like a law that might begin, "To reduce the number of deadly traffic accidents," it is a reason for the rest of the sentence that follows.
4 Star General here
Able bodied males. From most of the Militia foks I see at the range. They would not qualify.
As far as well regulated? I think they meant trained and capable of battle.
They were trying to avoid this...........
During the Revolution, there were two distinct groups. The State Militias were bands of unpaid, "non-professional" soldiers under the direction of the State Governors, and then there were the Continentals who were enlisted, paid "Professional" soldiers.
GW would make requests to a state Governor to dispatch a militia to secure a town, for example, but had no command over them directly. He just knew they were all on the "same side".
The NG is NOT a militia, even though it's under the command of the Governor, they are still part of the DoD and are paid professionals.
A militia would be me and you, as average citizens, grabbing our arms and voluntarily serving some duty under bequeth of our applicable governors.
There is a law on the books that all males between 17 and 50 something are considered part of the militia.
I pledge my service in defense of our country as part of the Arfcom Militia! We need a unit patch!
Hey, where did you get that pic of my family reunion?
I pleadge aligance to the Flag,
Of the United States of America,
And to the Republic for which is stands,
One nation, Under GOD, Indivisible,
With Liberty, And Justice for all.
ETA: Im a moron.
A militia unit can not and will not become a viable military organization, or have any potential for effective civil defense and response, until the talk stops and purposeful organization begins. Officers must effectively organize group efforts and provide for training, unit organization, response strategies, intelligence, security and communications. Logistics Officers must ensure the acquisition of resources consistent with the tactical role assumed by the unit. Every member must acquire and develop proficiency in the use of firearms, field and specialized equipment. Each member must be committed to the purpose and goals of the unit.
In any organization, there needs to be a clear chain of command to insure effective coordination of the smaller units. At the same time, units must be capable of responding to the immediate circumstances without having to request permission to act.
The fundamental rule guiding the organization is centralized principles and planning with decentralized tactics and action.
To meet these goals and objectives; the organization is divided into several teams under the direction of a command Staff.
3.1 BASIC TEAM ORGANIZATION
A Squad consists of three 4-5 man teams led by a Squad Leader (M5).
A Team consists of 4 men led by a Team Leader (M4).
1. Squad/Team Leader: The squad leader carries out the orders issued to him by the commander. He is responsible for the discipline, appearance, training, control, conduct and welfare of his squad at all times, as well as the condition, care, and economical use of it's equipment. He is also responsible for the tactical employment, fire discipline, fire control and maneuver of his squad. He takes position where he can best carry out orders of the CO; and observe and control the squad.
Team Leader: There is one team leader per 4 men. His duties are the same as those of the squad leader and he is also an Assistant Squad Leader.
2. Radio Operator: The team radio operator will carry and maintain the teams radio equipment. He will be trained in basic radio operating procedures including COMSEC and SIGINT. He will aid the Squad leader in keeping in contact with other units. Each team leader will carry and be trained in the use of 2m 6m HD or GMRS or CB depending on the unit for inter-unit communications.
3. Medic: This is the team member with the highest level of medical training. If possible he should be trained as a First Responder or an EMT. The Medic is responsible for overall field health and sanitation of the team. He must make sure the teams first aid gear is in order at all times and is responsible for the teams water supplies. He will carry medical gear over and above that required for individuals.
4. Heavy Gunner: This is the team member who will lay down suppressive fire and cover likely avenues of approach. He will be equipped with a large number of high capacity magazines and must have the ability to carry extra weight
5. Sharpshooter: This is the team member who is the most accurate shot of the group. He will train other members in rifle marksmanship. The sharpshooter will pull point and set the pace when on the march. He will provide team surveillance and recon. He will be equipped with a MBR rifle and scope.
All team members must pass Level 1 line qualifications. They must also train and cross-train in five basic skills. The primary skills being: Operations/ Intelligence, Engineering/Demolitions, Marksmanship, Medical and Communications. The Team Leader must be knowledgeable in the first skill and Commo. At full strength a team should have two persons in each assignment. Each team member will train in two assignments; a primary skill, and a secondary skill in case the primary man is unavailable.
3.2 TEAM DIVERSIFICATION
Since the team is the basic building block of the organization. They must also diversify by emphasizing and perfecting certain skills that are unique to their primary team function.
There are three types of teams: 1-Command, 2-Security, 3-Support:
*1 COMMAND TEAM: is the leadership of the unit and provides planning, training and issues orders to be carried out by the individual teams. The CT meets on the first Saturday of the month. They have a P.O. Box, landline #, email and fax.
Initial Organizational Objectives:
1. Establish a working relationship between other teams.
2. Establish local and regional Rapid Alert System (security, intelligence, and communications).
3. Organize logistical and administrative services.
4. Institute training program.
The Command Team's responsibilities include:
> Dissemination of constitutional principles and ideology to the rank and file.
> Development and dissemination of training material and methods to be used within the individual teams.
> Development and security of tactical and strategic contingency plans for implementation by the tactical teams.
> Coordination of the various teams.
> Development and operations of public relations within the community.
Command Team Organization and Duties:
S-1 Executive Officer
...2nd in Cmd
...Disseminates written communication (orders) to subordinate units.
...Handles administrative duties
...Serves as Public Relations Officer
S-2 Intelligence / Communications Officer
...Maintains and administers the Rapid Alert System
...Supervises the counterintelligence program and operational security systems
...Maintains the security of encoding/decoding systems
...Supervises intelligence gathering activities
...Analyses and reports intelligence information
S-3 Operations / Training Officer
...Establishes and enforces training standards
...Tailors training to specific missions
...Coordinates with the Intelligence Officer and develops the Threat Assessment Folder
...Planning of operations under C/O's directions
S-4 Supply / Logistics Officer
...Responsible for the acquisition and accountability of all supplies and material.
...Supervises all logistical support activities including: transport, evacuation, and medical, supply service and management.
*2 SECURITY TEAM: These are your Primary Forces. They provide security for all facilities, conduct patrols, and provide defense. Each team consists of 4 men and a team leader, communications, rendezvous points, staging areas, and standing orders. They execute the orders of the CT and train within their own unit.
*3 SUPPORT TEAMS (Supply and Logistics): The support teams consist of those who are unable, unwilling, or ill-equipped for active duty. Their task is to provide whatever support is needed by the other units.
* The Supply Team supports the company by procuring and delivering needed equipment and provisions. They may also be use as messengers between the CO and the tactical units.
Re-supply is a particularly important consideration for all mobile units and for protracted emergencies. Each unit must plan and provide for storage and independent caches of the following:
food, fuel, clothing, shoes, shelter, medical equipment, combat equipment, arms, ammunition, and communications equip.
Purchase supplies in quantity and if possible coordinate purchases with other individuals or groups for economy and standardization. Special attention is recommended for establishing safe houses and unit caches at strategic locations within the units AO. Particular emphasis should be placed on the individual acquisition of a minimum of a one year supply of food and water for each family member, and the secure storage of it.
*The Medical Team supports operations by setting up and maintaining an aid station to receive and care for sick and wounded. There should be one member of each tactical team trained as a Field Medic. Field medics must see to it that a preventative medicine program is instituted and adhered to. Field sanitation and personal hygiene must be of paramount importance.
See unit structure graphic Figure 1.
4.0 RANK STRUCTURE
In basic Level One training, undergoing screening and evaluation during mandatory 90 day probationary period. This is also the entry rank for those who respond to a real call up.
Basic militiaman-has attained Level One training and equipment standards. Can operate unsupported in the field for a 24 hour period.
M-3 Private First Class
Primary Forces militiaman - Assistant Team Leader. Must assist in the training of M-1's through the buddy system or one on one interactive training. Has met all Level Two training and equipment standards. Can operate unsupported in the field for a 72 hour period.
M-4 Corporal (Team Leader)
Has served as an M-3 for a period of 6 months. He has mastered all Level 1 and 2 skills and is capable of teaching them to others. The M-4 has a good working knowledge of small unit tactics, troop leading procedures and has proven his leadership qualities in the field.
NCOs are responsible for the discipline, appearance, training, conduct and welfare of their men at all times; as well as the condition, care and economical use of all equipment. The NCO must command and control the tactical employment, fire control and discipline and movement of those placed under him. In the field, he positions himself where he can best carry out the orders of his C/O while observing and controlling his teams.
M-5 Sergeant (Squad Leader, SOG)
Has served as an M-4 for a period of 1 year. He is a master of all Level 1 and 2 skills and is the lead instructor of his squad. He has proven leadership ability. He is knowledgeable in advanced squad level tactics, resistance warfare, troop leading procedures, mission planning and execution.
M-6 Master Sergeant (Platoon Leader)
Is the senior NCO at the platoon level and is in command of 3 squads. This rank is also utilized for command of a SOG squad or as a senior training NCO.
M-7 First Sergeant (Company Level NCOIC)
Will have a staff consisting of a radio operator and a M3 runner/security.
M-8 Sergeant Major (Battalion Level NCOIC) Command Staff will consist of a squad of M3 and M4s for security and message dispatch couriers in addition to the radio operator.
*NOTE: Grade Modifiers*
Modifiers are necessary to allow command to assign NCO leadership to lead new recruits as they become available. Training of active members as NCOs capable of leading at the squad level is the greatest force multiplier. Knowledge, ability and dedication are the only valid criteria to assign rank within the militia. Rank modifiers are the only way to determine if a militiaman is able to carry out a specific mission. The rank and the modifiers are included in the individual training card and is the only information to be transferred to a roster.
0XX Unfit for front line combat - due to age (45+) or physical disability. but, has met all other Level 1 and 2 requirements. This person is capable of operating in a support role such as training, communications, medical, supply and logistics. In the case of military veterans; their primary mission will be the training of others.
1XX Minimum physical fitness level - 2 mile Field march w/Level 1 gear in 30 minutes.
2XX Moderate physical fitness level - 3 miles field march w/Level 2 in 40 minutes.
3XX Excellent physical fitness level - 5 mile field march w Level 2 (72 hour) gear in 2 hours.
X1X Basic Marksman - “Recruit” score on Marksmanship Qualification Test
X2X Advanced Marksman - “Sharpshooter” score on Marksmanship Qualification Test
X3X Expert Marksman - “Expert” score on Marksmanship Qualification Test
X4X Designated Marksman (Sniper) - “Expert” score and meets DMR scoring on the MQT
XXA Qualified with 5.56
XXB " " 7.62x.39
XXC " " 7.62x.51 (308)
XXD " " 7.62x.59 (30.06)
XXE " " .50 cal
XXE " " Other
"Minutemen" represent the backbone of the militia. These are the basic 'light infantry" combat troops. They must be able to shoot, move and communicate. They are trained to Level 2 standards, basic team tactics, conducting raids and patrols. as well as providing secondary combat support for the special operations teams. They are organized into 4 person teams which are combined to form 12 man squads.
Some of the Primary Force missions include:
*Security and Warning - keeping enemy forces under surveillance.
*Intelligence - collecting information, watching civilians, monitoring refugees, reporting attempts by enemy agents to infiltrate the area, and identifying informers.
*Logistics - providing transportation, medical care/supplies, establishing and guarding caches, collecting food, clothing ammunition etc.
*Requiting - identifying, screening, and recruiting personnel for active resistance units.
*Psychological OPS - spreading rumors, leaflets, posters and graffiti, keeping the belief in final victory alive in the minds of the populace, intimidating or elimination of known collaborators.
*Evasion and Escape - establishing safe houses and evacuation plans, furnishing guides.
Special Operations Groups
Special Operations Groups are organized, trained and equipped to conduct unconventional warfare in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive areas. They operate independently or in coordination with the operations of other Primary forces teams. S.O.G's use clandestine, covert, or low visibility techniques with oversight from the Area Commander. Special operations differ from the conventional operations in the degree of physical risk, operational techniques, modes of employment, independence from friendly support, and dependence on detailed intelligence and indigenous assets. S.O.G. must be able to operate underground for periods up to 8 days with no outside assistance.
S.O.G. forces are organized into 12 man squads led by a combat veteran or a Sergeant who has attained M-5 / 33C standards. Each squad is broken down into 2 four man Recondo teams and 2 two man Scout/Sniper teams. Recondo is the "special mission" team. Scout/Sniper is the "rogue element" sent out after the enemy as needed.
All S.O.G members must meet all Level 3 minimum standards and train and cross train in 6 primary skills: Unconventional warfare, Reconnaissance, Long Range Surveillance, Scouting/Marksmanship, Medical and Communications. Each member will be qualified in 2 areas.
S.O.G. Missions will include:
Zero Contact Reconnaissance
Long Range Patrols
5. BASIC TRAINING PLAN
1. The Training Plan is based on the "core training card" concept in support of the brigades Mission Essential Training List (METL) requirements. The focus is to prepare all personnel for mobilization. The intent is to provide meaningful training that can be put into immediate use and to motivate personnel to actively accept greater responsibilities. The individual training card will be held by the owner at all times except when attending an FTX or on active duty. During those times the training cards will be held by the most senior NCO of the active unit.
2. The Training Plan will break down the " Core Training Card" into 4 quarterly schedules. Three topics will be routinely taught on a repetitive cycle until the unit reaches 100% training attainment.
3. Each unit will conduct a yearly Alert Mobilization Drill.
All members must commit themselves, individually, and in concert with their unit, to learn and master as many basic skills as possible, including proficiency with firearms (including field stripping and cleaning), hand signals, fields of fire, entrenchment, camouflage, cover and concealment, individual and squad movement. Each unit member is required to complete the mandatory training course to meet Minimum Mission Essential Training (METL) requirements.
Marksmanship Qualification Test
IDPA (or IPSC), mounted so that the head is between 5'8" and 6' feet from the ground
Any service rifle that is safe.
Any full powered service load. No target or squib loads.
Magazine carriers must be worn in a legitimate magazine pouch with all retention devices employed, as you would while on a night patrol through dense jungle. (All fastex buckles secured, etc.)
IDPA Target: 0 and -1 score as 0 (zero) points, -3 is one (1) point for major caliber, and two (2) points for minor caliber
IPSC Target: Zones A, B and C score as 0 (zero) points, with zone D scoring as 1 (one) point for major caliber, and 2 (two) points for minor caliber.
For any shots outside the “0” zone, add up the shots, multiply that number by the major (1 point) or minor (2 points) point factor and then divide by two (2) and that number will be added to the final score. For instance, shooter A had 3 shots outside the 0 zone and was shooting a major caliber. Take the 3 shots times the major factor of one (1) which equals 3, divided by two equals 1.5 and this will be added to the final score.
Shooter B also has 3 shots outside the 5 zone but was shooting a minor caliber rifle. So, take the 3 shots times the minor factor of two (2) equals six (6), divided by two equals 3 and this is added to the final score.
7.62x39, 7.62x51, .30.06, 7.62x54 Russian, .303 British
5.56x45; 5.45x39; .30 Carbine
Where headshots are required, a hit in the head box will score 0 pts. If a hit is made in the body proper, (defined as below shoulder level) a miss will be scored (5 points added to score).
Since this is a par-time course, the minimum time is fixed, however, if the shooter takes longer than the “par time”, then those extra seconds will be added to the score. For instance, if the shooter takes 5.17 seconds to complete a string of fire and the par time was 4.0 seconds, then 1.17 seconds (5.17 seconds minus 4.0 seconds) will be added to the final score.
For each missed shot (shots that were fired but that did not hit the target) a five (5) point penalty will be added to the score.
The shooter will wear his/her LBE/LBV during the whole test. The LBV will be loaded with what the shooter normally takes on patrol (I.E. full magazines or clips and full water compliment as a minimum).
The shooter will do 25 one (1) count jumping-jacks (side-straddle-hops) prior to starting. After completing stage 1, he will do 20 jumping-jacks prior to stage 2, 15 jumping-jacks prior to stage 3, 10 jumping-jacks prior to stage 4, and 10 jumping jacks prior to the start of each stage after that. There is to be NO rest period after the jumping-jacks to the start of the stage. The purpose of this is to keep the heart rate up for the duration of the test, to simulate physical exertion and to induce stress into the equation. It is important for the shooter to see his/her performance under these conditions.
Low Ready is defined by having buttstock in shoulder, with barrel pointed at 45 degrees towards the ground.
Patrol Position is defined by having the rifle waist high and near horizontal.
Malfunction Clearance Drills:
For malfunction clearance drills, the malfunction will be induced manually, then at the beep of the timer, the shooter will clear the malfunction and place one hit on a target 50 yards away.
For example, for #1 stoppage, the shooter will ensure that there is NO round in the chamber, but a full mag is in the well. The start position will be with the rifle shouldered as if one were shooting. At the beep, the shooter will switch the safety/selector to fire and pull the trigger.
When the shooter realizes that the hammer fell on an empty chamber, he will immediately perform the tap-rack-bang drill. For bolt-action rifles the shooter will manually cycle the bolt to chamber a round.
For the #2 stoppage, the shooter will ensure the chamber is empty, and then will take an expended cartridge and place it in the classic stove-pipe position, then will seat a full mag.
The shooter will start with the rifle shouldered. At the timer beep, the shooter will visually observe the malfunction and then clear it, followed up by one shot on a target 50 yards away.
Bolt-action rifles will also simulate a stove pipe, such as may be caused by short stroking the bolt. Manually cycling the bolt while flipping the rifle on it side will clear the expended case and allow for a fresh round to be chambered.
For stoppage #3, the shooter will ensure the chamber is empty. Then the shooter will place an expended cartridge in the chamber, and while holding the bolt back, the shooter will then insert a full magazine, and then will ease the bolt forward to induce a double feed. Then the shooter will shoulder the rifle, and at the beep will clear the stoppage and fire 1 shot at a target 50 yards distant. For bolt-action rifles, a stuck case will also cause a double feed. Immediate action for this stoppage with a bolt action would be to pull the bolt back and either push the live cartridge back down into the rifle magazine, then while holding the fresh cartridge down, push the bolt forward to snap the extractor over the stuck case. Then manually cycle the bolt to extract/eject the spend round, and the chambering a liver round. The second method is to dump all the rounds out of magazine via the magazine release lever/button, THEN cycling the bolt to extract/eject the stuck case, followed by charging the rifle via a stripper/en bloc clip, ramming/allowing the bolt to close, and then fire.
Procedure for magazine changes when using a bolt action rifle. The same procedure that is used with magazines can be used with stripper clips. If the stage calls for magazine retention then you must retain the spent stripper clip. When the stage calls for no magazine retention then the stripper clip will be dropped.
National Standards Rifle Course
1. Head Shots
Perform five times each, all shots offhand - all shots to the body are counted as a miss
a. 25 meters; Low Ready; 2.0 sec
b. 25 meters; Low Ready WEAK SIDE; 3.0 sec
2. Chest Shots
Perform five times each, all shots offhand - all shots to the head are counted as a miss
a. 50 meters; Low Ready; 2.0 sec
b. 50 meters; Low Ready WEAK SIDE; 3.0 sec
3. Chest Shots
Perform five times each, all shots offhand, or kneeling - shots to the head are counted as a miss
a. 100 meters; Low Ready; 4.0 sec
4. Chest Shots
Perform five times each, all shots kneeling or prone - start standing - all shots to the head are counted as a miss
a. 200 meters; Low Ready; 5.0 sec
DMR QUALIFICATION - PERFORM FIVE TIMES*
Perform five times each, all shots kneeling or prone - start standing - head shots only all others are counted as a miss
a. 200 meters; Low Ready; 6.0 sec HEAD SHOTS ONLY
5. Malfunction Drills
Perform three times each
Manually induce malfunction, then at the 'beep' Clear Malfunction and place one hit on target at 50 meters
a. Position One; 4.0 sec
(tap and rack)
b. Position Two; 4.0 sec
c. Position Three; 8.0 sec
6. Magazine Changes
Perform three times; starting position is with a round in the chamber and an EMPTY magazine. Rifle at Low Ready.
Fire one shot, reload and fire one shot at 50 meters WITHOUT retaining magazine, all mag pouches secured!
a. Mag change without retention; 9.0 sec
7. Magazine Changes
Perform three times; starting position is with rifle/magazine fully loaded. Rifle at Low Ready.
Fire one shot, reload and fire one shot at 50 meters WITH retaining magazine, all mag pouches secured!
a. Mag Change with retention 11.0 sec
8. Close Range Shooting from shoulder or Underarm Assault
Perform three times each side - start in patrol ready position (rifle near horizontal about waist high or buttstock in shoulder, muzzle down)
a. 3 meters; 0.6 sec
b. 7 meters; 0.8 sec
c. 10 meters; 1.2 sec
9. Multiple Targets
Perform twice each; starting position is at low ready. Targets are spaced with 1 meter between each target.
a. 5 meters; 2 targets; 1.2 sec
b. 5 meters; 3 targets; 1.5 sec
c. 5 meters; 4 targets; 1.8 sec
For IDPA Targets: "0" and "-1" zones score 0 points all calibers; "-3" zone is 1 point multiplier for 'major' caliber, and 2 point
multiplier for 'minor' caliber
For IPSC Targets: "A", "B" and "C" zones score 0 points all calibers; "D" zone is 1 point multiplier for 'major' caliber and 2
point multiplier for 'minor' caliber
Shots fired after par-time has elapsed - add that many seconds to the score (i.e. last shot was fired 1.37 seconds after par
time elapsed - add 1.37 points to score)
For all shots outside the "0" zone - add up all shots, times that by the major or minor multiplier and divide by 2 - and that
number is added to the score (i.e. shooter had
2 shots outside the "0" scoring zone and was shooting minor caliber - so take the 2 shots times the "2" (for minor caliber)
which equals 4 - and then divide by 2 - which leaves 2 - so add 2 points to the final score.
If he were shooting major caliber is would be 2 shots, times 1 (major multiplier) divided by 2 equals 1 point added to final score.)
Scoring For 200 Yard Range:
Maximum = 0
Expert (M4) = 1-39
Marksman (M3) = 40-77
Sharpshooter (M2) = 78-116
Recruit (M1) = 117-231 (No Time Limit)
Scoring For Less Than 200 Yard Range:
Maximum = 0
Expert (M4) = 1-36
Marksman (M3) = 37-72
Sharpshooter (M2) = 73-108
Recruit (M1) = 109-216 (No Time Limit)
(If a 200 yard or smaller range was used for qualification, such should be marked on the training card.)
*To qualify as DMR (Designated Marksman), the shooter must qualify as Expert and achieve all five DMR head shots within the allotted time limit.
FAQ List for Rifle Qualification
1. Why is there no movement (running, seeking cover, etc.) in this course
Short Answer: What this course is designed to do is to test the tactical shooting skill level of the shooter. This course is NOT designed to test the tactical movement skill level, nor the athletic ability of the shooter.
Long Answer: Tactical movement in the real world is dependent upon too many variables to be able to make a Standard Exercise. For instance, there are times when the tactical situation will demand stealth, (i.e. slow, deliberate movement) and other situations in almost the exact environmental conditions and surroundings that will call for dynamic movement (speed). Since the conditions that dictate the rate of movement can't be duplicated we have opted to forego any tactical movement during qualification. However, tactical movement should be practiced regularly, and is best practiced through Force-on-Force type exercises using either paintball and/or airsoft.
2. Are bi-pods allowed?
Short Answer: Yes, however the bipod must be attached to the rifle at all other times too. In other words while you are on patrol, etc. Once you take the bipod off the rifle you must re-qualify.
Long Answer: We need to train correctly. Only perfect PRACTICE makes perfect. So, one MUST shoot the course with one's rifle that is set up to take on patrol. It would defeat the purpose of this course to allow the attachment of bi-pods to only shoot the course, and then remove the bi-pod for patrol. There may be some that say I have a detachable bi-pod that I keep in my ruck? and when the shooting starts I can quickly put it on. Great then that is how you will start the course. With your backpack on, and once the timer beeps, you can take your backpack off, dig around for the bi-pod, attach it to your rifle, and shoot that particular sting of fire. Then before the next timed fire begins, you can take the bi-pod off, put it in your ruck, and then put your ruck on your back. This will be the procedure for every timed/scored event (you will end up doing this 53 times).
3. Are Scopes allowed?
Short Answer: Scopes are allowed if that is what you ALWAYS have on your rifle. If, when you are going on a 10 mile patrol, you have your scope attached to your rifle then that is how you will shoot the course.
Long Answer: This course will be a great test-bed to help the shooter ascertain whether his/her set-up is ready for the real world. There are some that have all kinds items attached to their rifle. This course will help them see if all the items are necessary or not. For instance, most contact happens well under 100 meters so the 10X scope that one has attached to their ‘fighting rifle will probably be a hindrance when shooting at 25 yards. This course is designed to show the shooter the flaws in his/her equipment, as well as the areas the shooter needs to concentrate more training effort to (i.e. PRACTICE).
4. Are Shooting Slings allowed?
Short Answer: Yes. However, the start position will be that position that the sling is in during the 8th mile of a ten mile hike.
Long Answer: The odds that someone would actually have a shooting sling wrapped around one's arm for a 10 mile patrol is ZERO. Let's get used to the idea of shooting this course as it was designed for chance contact (surprise contact). That means you have NO warning that contact is immanent. So, shoot the course pretending that you are 8 miles into a 10 mile patrol. In other words, once the time beeps the start signal THEN if you wish you can wrap the sling around your arm and begin that string of fire. Then after that string, un-loop the sling from your arm to start the next string.
5. Are Patrol or Tactical slings allowed?
Short Answer: Yes, if that is what is always attached to your rifle.
Long Answer: Yes, if that is what is always attached to your rifle.
6. Why are we not doing firearm transitions (switching from rifle to handgun)
Short Answer: Not everyone carries a sidearm on patrol. It is personal preference if one does, or one doesn't.
Long Answer: The sidearm is carried for two totally different purposes depending upon the mission.
Typically one carries a sidearm as part of one's first line gear. It is worn in such a manner as to secure it to the person (so it does not become lost), and to protect it from the elements. The holsters that best do this are not what one would consider speed holsters. So it would take too long to get one's first line sidearm out of its holster to transition to.
Another reason transitions are not done is the field is because of balance and movement.
Balance is essential to movement. Without balance, one cannot move effectively. To perform the classical transition movement, one drops and rotates one's rifle so it is hanging by the sling in either the front, side or rear of the shooter. Then one draws one's sidearm and uses it to drive on. This is fine for CQB/Urban type operations, because one can stop once a room is secured. While one is stopped one can get one's primary (rifle/carbine) up and running, and return the sidearm to its holster. The problem with the field is there is no room to secure hence there may not be an area to stop and get one's primary up and running. SO you may have to RUN for a few hundred meters before you can get fix your rifle. Try and RUN for two hundred meters with your primary (rifle/carbine) dangling in front of you. It will DESTROY your balance. And the heavier the rifle, the MORE it will destroy your balance. Remember, without balance you cannot move effectively. So, in the field while doing tactical shooting and moving, if your primary goes down PRETEND it is up. In other words, keep it in your hands. Obviously as SOON as you can you will get it up and running again.
7. Why is there a penalty for minor caliber?
Short Answer: There is only a penalty for peripheral shots, i.e. shots that are near misses. For all good shots, the values are the same for major or minor calibers.
Long Answer: The debate regarding which is best: 5.56 or 7.62 whatever will continue to rage on LONG after we are all dead. These debates will continue because there is a huge void of fact concerning the matter. And the reasons for that fact void is there are just too many variables about what happens when people get shot with rifle (or handgun) fired projectiles.
However, some facts are available: The typical 5.56 rifles (in rack form) weigh less than rifles in 7.62. The 5.56 round itself weighs less than 7.62. The 5.56 rifles are easier to carry, and the 5.56 recoils less than the 7.62 making shots a little easier. So those that shoot the 5.56 (and I am one of those) should be EXPECTED to shoot a little better than those that choose the 7.62 - which I also have in both varieties the FN (7.62x51) and the AK (7.62x39).
Also the major calibers ARE better at penetrating barriers than minor calibers are. In other words what is cover to 5.56 may only be concealment to .308. For these reasons the major calibers are given a little break. If you don’t like it shoot a major caliber rifle.
8. Why is shooting from the weak side mandatory?
Short Answer: There is both strong and weak side cover in the world.
Long Answer: Do this experiment. TRIPLE VERIFY that your rifle is unloaded and DO NOT take any live ammunition with your now unloaded rifle. Now go in your bathroom (or any other place that has a large mirror). Pretend that the mirror is a corner and move enough of your body into the mirror so that you can shoot around the corner in the mirror. As SOON as your rifle enters the mirror enough to shoot STOP. Look at how much of your body is available for the enemy to shoot. Now trade shoulders and do the exact same exercise from the exact same side of the mirror.
Once you do this, you will see that you had to expose TWICE (double) the amount of your body when you used the wrong shoulder. This is why it is so important to get used to using both sides of your body as a shooting platform.
This way, as you are running up to some cover, (and it happens to be left side cover) you will AUTOMATICALLY switch to your left shoulder and better utilize that cover (maximize your hit potential and minimize your exposure to enemy fire).
Another reason is the majority of wounds in a combat environment (not necessarily combat itself but the whole combat environment just running around in a combat environment makes extreme sports look like a kindergarten playground!) are extremity wounds.
Wounds to the hands, shoulders, legs and feet. So if one is wounded in the strong arm, then one would have to use one's weak side to shoot from. Well, what if one had NEVER practiced shooting from one's weak side How effective would they be? Not very.
9. Why are we not shooting from more positions?
Short Answer: For simplicity, most of the work is done from the standing position, with some stages in kneeling or prone, shooters choice. This avoids the possible confusion of the different variations of shooting position.
Long Answer: For all 'chance contact' - return fire should initially be from the position one finds oneself in when the first rounds fly, and that will be standing (or squatting). After that point one will be running, or squatting, or kneeling, or prone, or some variation of the above positions all dependent upon other variables like terrain, near or far ambush, etc. In other words, whatever position/positions are best for the tactical environment.
For all other applications, for example an ambush, one has TIME to figure out what position would be best for the job.
We think it is best to train for the 'unexpected' contact than the one where you have lots of time to figure your position out.
However, as in the statement above regarding tactical movement position assumption should and must be practiced, so that your body can easily get in and out of the various positions in order to maximize your hit potential and minimize your exposure to enemy fire.
Dry fire practice, followed up live fire practice will help instill these positions into your repertoire of skills. Then Force-on-Force training will allow you to hone these skills even further.
10. When scoring major and minor caliber why divide by two?
Short Answer: There is a delicate balance of time vs. accuracy. The old adage that one cannot miss fast enough is true. Only hits count. Time is added at a 1 to 1 ratio, peripheral hits are added at a .5 ratio to reflect this balance.
Long Answer: What we do not want is for the shooter to try and game this course. In other words, for the shooter to decide that it is better to have a miss and let the par time stand, or to take a additional 1.5 seconds and have a peripheral hit. Let's use this example and look at the score difference. Shooter A takes an additional 1.5 seconds to score a peripheral hit. He is shooting minor caliber. The peripheral hit scores a two (2) which is then divided by 2 to give a point value of 1. Add the 1.5 second overtime shot to the point value of 1 this equals 2.5 points which is added to the score. This encourages the shooter to get a hit, even if it is overtime. This is far preferable to not even shooting the shot and adding a 5 point penalty to the score for a miss. This also discourages rushing the shot, i.e. the shooter tries to go so fast that they miss. In other words, one could take an additional 4 seconds and have a peripheral hit with a minor caliber rifle (which would add 1 point) to be the same point value of a miss. So this scoring system REWARDS HITS even if they are over-time hits. Slower hits are better than blazing fast misses.
To take this further, if we did not divide by two then the shooter would only have 3 seconds to make a peripheral hit before it would score the same as a miss. So again, we want to encourage HITS even if they are overtime. That way the shooter will work on being accurate and fast, and not sacrifice accuracy for the sake of speed.
CORE TRAINING CARD
SKILL LEVEL ONE: (M2)
This is basic training which all new recruits (M-1) are required to complete within the 90 probationary period. Upon completion of Level 1 training the recruit will advance to the rank of Private (M-2) and will be considered an active line member of the unit.
1. Command and Organization
2. Mobilization and Alert Readiness
.....a. Rapid Alert System / Alert levels
.....b. Evacuation: Routes, Rally Points
3. Physical Fitness 1XX
.....a. Field march for 2 miles in 30 minutes with all Level 1 gear. 3 to 5 second rushes for 100 yards, 10 PU 10 SU
4. Basic Marksmanship X1X
.....a. Must score Recruit or better on the Marksmanship Qualification Test.
.....b. Must be able to load, clear malfunctions and field strip weapon for repair or cleaning.
5. Individual Movement Techniques
.....a. low/high crawl
.....b. team file and wedge formation.
6. Individual Camouflage
7. Basic Field Communications:
.....a. Hand and Arm Signals
.....b. Basic Radio Operating Procedures
.....c. COMSEC / SALUTE / SITREP
.....d. Perform surveillance without the aid of electronic devices.
6. Basic First Aid:
.....a. Evaluate a casualty
.....b. Prevent / treat shock
.....c. Clear an object from the throat
.....d. Treat / prevent heat stroke and frostbite
.....e. Treat burns
.....f. Put on a field or pressure dressing
.....g. Apply a dressing to an open chest, abdominal, and head wound.
.....h. Splint a fracture
.....I. Perform CPR
.....j. Transport a casualty
.....k. Basic sanitation, preventative medicine and health maintenance
SKILL LEVEL TWO: (M3)
Skill Level 2 is required to advance to the rank of M-3 Private First Class and to be considered capable of performing Primary Forces missions. M-3's must be prepared to deploy quickly and remain in the field unsupported for 72 hours. He is a fully functional and deployable militia soldier, capable of leading his squad and training others.
To meet Level 2 standards one must have mastered all Level 1 qualifications and equipment plus:
Physical Fitness: 2XX
Field march with all Level 2 gear 3 miles in 40 minutes.
Must score Sharpshooter or better on the Marksmanship Qualification Test.
Must have a thorough understanding of:
Troop leading procedures including the 5 paragraph OPORD, SALUTE, CARVER etc.
Small Unit Tactics
1. Immediate Action Drills
.....a. Move under direct fire
.....b. React to indirect fire
.....c. React to contact
.....d. Break contact
.....e. React to ambush, near or far
.....f. React to flares
.....a. Fire Team and Squad Wedge
.....c. Traveling, Traveling Over watch and Bounding Over watch
3. Perform Reconnaissance
4. Select and construct individual fighting positions
5. Set up Patrol Base camp
6. Cross danger areas
Basic Land Navigation
.....a. Identify topographic symbols and features on a map
.....b. Determine a location on the ground by terrain association
.....c. Measure distance on a map
.....d. Orient a map to the ground by terrain association
.....e. Determine direction with and without a compass
.....b. Noise light and litter discipline
.....c. Field emplacements, or base camp
Every Primary Forces member must maintain a 3 month supply of the following and the knowledge to use it.
.....a. Water Storage / Purification
.....b. Field Hygiene / Sanitation
.....c. Food Storage
.....d. Medical Supplies
Basic Survival Abilities
.....a. Identify wild foods in the A/O
.....b. Identify poisonous plants and snakes in the A/O
.....c. Locate and purify drinking water
.....d. Build a fire
.....e. Snare/trap wild game
......f. Locate, and construct a field expedient survival shelter.
SKILL LEVEL THREE: (M4)
The M4 is the primary team leader. The M4 is equipped and trained with unit specific com equipment to maintain inter-unit communications.
He has mastered all of the Level 2 skills and has been trained in the following leadership skills:
Troop Leading Procedure:
1. Receive mission begin plan
a. Estimate the situation/analyze the mission
b. Plan the use of available time.
c. Formulate a tentative plan.
d. Organize men, weapons and equipment.
2. Issue Warning Order
3. Continue Analysis of Situation/Mission
a. Study terrain map, sketch for: OCOKA
(1) Observation and fields of fire
(2) Cover and concealment
(4) Key terrain
(5) Avenues of approach
b. Make preliminary plan
4. Conduct Coordination
5. Make reconnaissance
e. Previous Patrol Reports
6. Complete plan
SMEAC: The Five Paragraph Warning Order
The Warning Order is to inform the patrol members of an impending mission and to organize their preparation for it. The format outlined below covers the information necessary for a warning order. The detail covered in each section is determined by the Team Leader to insure proper coverage.
S-Situation-Friendly and enemy- what are they doing?
M-Mission-What is it? Describe it's goals and purpose. Include who, what, when and where.
E-Execution-Who does what and when? Location of Rally Points?
A-Admin. and Logistics- Needed equipment for conduct of mission, and dispersal among team.
C-Command and signal-Chain of command? Radio freqs and call signs for your team and nearby friendlies? Sign/Countersign?
1. Reconnoiter, pinpoint objective/enemy position/obstacles.
2. Determine weak points: designate support positions.
3. Assign objectives-identify the decisive point.
4. Determine main attack, supporting attack and reserve.
5. Assign breach, support and assault missions.
6. Designate fire control measures.
7. Coordinate direct/indirect fire to time of attack.
8. Control measures during attack.
9. Secure ground and air
10. Coordinate and reorganize.
Holy Crap dude!
You can down load the National Militia Standards
The Militia Act of 1792, Passed May 8, 1792, providing federal standards for the organization of the Militia.
An ACT more effectually to provide for the National Defence, by establishing an Uniform Militia throughout the United States.
I. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the respective States, resident therein, who is or shall be of age of eighteen years, and under the age of forty-five years (except as is herein after excepted) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia, by the Captain or Commanding Officer of the company, within whose bounds such citizen shall reside, and that within twelve months after the passing of this Act. And it shall at all time hereafter be the duty of every such Captain or Commanding Officer of a company, to enroll every such citizen as aforesaid, and also those who shall, from time to time, arrive at the age of 18 years, or being at the age of 18 years, and under the age of 45 years (except as before excepted) shall come to reside within his bounds; and shall without delay notify such citizen of the said enrollment, by the proper non-commissioned Officer of the company, by whom such notice may be proved. That every citizen, so enrolled and notified, shall, within six months thereafter, provide himself with a good musket or firelock, a sufficient bayonet and belt, two spare flints, and a knapsack, a pouch, with a box therein, to contain not less than twenty four cartridges, suited to the bore of his musket or firelock, each cartridge to contain a proper quantity of power and ball; or with a good rifle, knapsack, shot-pouch, and power-horn, twenty balls suited to the bore of his rifle, and a quarter of a power of power; and shall appear so armed, accoutred and provided, when called out to exercise or into service, except, that when called out on company days to exercise only, he may appear without a knapsack. That the commissioned Officers shall severally be armed with a sword or hanger, and espontoon; and that from and after five years from the passing of this Act, all muskets from arming the militia as is herein required, shall be of bores sufficient for balls of the eighteenth part of a pound; and every citizen so enrolled, and providing himself with the arms, ammunition and accoutrements, required as aforesaid, shall hold the same exempted from all suits, distresses, executions or sales, for debt or for the payment of taxes.
II. And be it further enacted, That the Vice-President of the United States, the Officers, judicial and executives, of the government of the United States; the members of both houses of Congress, and their respective officers; all custom house officers, with the clerks; all post officers, and stage-drivers who are employed in the care and conveyance of the mail of the post office of the United States; all Ferrymen employed at any ferry on the post road; all inspectors of exports; all pilots, all mariners actually employed in the sea service of any citizen or merchant within the United States; and all persons who now are or may be hereafter exempted by the laws of the respective states, shall be and are hereby exempted from militia duty, notwithstanding their being above the age of eighteen and under the age of forty-five years.
III. And be it further enacted, That within one year after the passing of the Act, the militia of the respective states shall be arranged into divisions, brigades, regiments, battalions, and companies, as the legislature of each state shall direct; and each division, brigade, and regiment, shall be numbered at the formation thereof; and a record made of such numbers of the Adjutant-General's office in the state; and when in the field, or in serviced in the state, such division, brigade, and regiment shall, respectively, take rank according to their numbers, reckoning the first and lowest number highest in rank. That if the same be convenient, each brigade shall consist of four regiments; each regiment or two battalions; each battalion of five companies; each company of sixty-four privates. That the said militia shall be officered by the respective states, as follows: To each division on Major-General, with two Aids-de-camp, with the rank of major; to each brigade, one brigadier-major, with the rank of a major; to each company, one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, four serjeants, four corporals, one drummer, and one fifer and bugler. That there shall be a regimental staff, to consist of one adjutant, and one quartermaster, to rank as lieutenants; one paymaster; one surgeon, and one surgeon's mate; one serjeant-major; one drum- major, and one fife-major.
IV. And be it further enacted, That out of the militia enrolled as is herein directed, there shall be formed for each battalion, as least one company of grenadiers, light infantry or riflemen; and that each division there shall be, at least, one company of artillery, and one troop of horse: There shall be to each company of artillery, one captain, two lieutenants, four serjeants, four corporals, six gunners, six bombardiers, one drummer, and one fifer. The officers to be armed with a sword or hanger, a fusee, bayonet and belt, with a cartridge box to contain twelve cartridges; and each private of matoss shall furnish themselves with good horses of at least fourteen hands and an half high, and to be armed with a sword and pair of pistols, the holsters of which to be covered with bearskin caps. Each dragoon to furnish himself with a serviceable horse, at least fourteen hands and an half high, a good saddle, bridle, mail-pillion and valise, holster, and a best plate and crupper, a pair of boots and spurs; a pair of pistols, a sabre, and a cartouchbox to contain twelve cartridges for pistols. That each company of artillery and troop of house shall be formed of volunteers from the brigade, at the discretion of the Commander in Chief of the State, not exceeding one company of each to a regiment, nor more in number than one eleventh part of the infantry, and shall be uniformly clothed in raiments, to be furnished at their expense, the colour and fashion to be determined by the Brigadier commanding the brigade to which they belong.
V. And be it further enacted, That each battalion and regiment shall be provided with the state and regimental colours by the Field-Officers, and each company with a drum and fife or bugle-horn, by the commissioned officers of the company, in such manner as the legislature of the respective States shall direct.
VI. And be it further enacted, That there shall be an adjutant general appointed in each state, whose duty it shall be to distribute all orders for the Commander in Chief of the State to the several corps; to attend all publick reviews, when the Commander in Chief of the State shall review the militia, or any part thereof; to obey all orders from him relative to carrying into execution, and perfecting, the system of military discipline established by this Act; to furnish blank forms of different returns that may be required; and to explain the principles of which they should be made; to receive from the several officers of the different corps throughout the state, returns of the militia under their command, reporting the actual situation of their arms, accoutrements, and ammunition, their delinquencies, and every other thing which relates to the general advancement of good order and discipline: All which, the several officers of the division, brigades, regiments, and battalions are hereby required to make in the usual manner, so that the said adjutant general may be duly furnished therewith: From all which returns be shall make proper abstracts, and by the same annually before the Commander in Chief of the State.
VII. And be it further enacted, That the rules of discipline, approved and established by Congress, in their resolution of the twenty-ninth of March, 1779, shall be the rules of discipline so be observed by the militia throughout the United States, except such deviations from the said rules, as may be rendered necessary by the requisitions of the Act, or by some other unavoidable circumstances. It shall be the duty of the Commanding Officer as every muster, whether by battalion, regiment, or single company, to cause the militia to be exercised and trained, agreeably to the said rules of said discipline.
VIII. And be it further enacted, That all commissioned officers shall take rank according to the date of their commissions; and when two of the same grade bear an equal date, then their rank to be determined by lots, to be drawn by them before the Commanding officers of the brigade, regiment, battalion, company or detachment.
IX. And be it further enacted That if any person whether officer or solder, belonging to the militia of any state, and called out into the service of the United States, be wounded or disabled, while in actual service, he shall be taken care of an provided for at the publick expense.
X. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of the brigade inspector, to attend the regimental and battalion meeting of the militia composing their several brigades, during the time of their being under arms, to inspect their arms, ammunition and accoutrements; superintend their exercise and maneuvres and introduce the system of military discipline before described, throughout the brigade, agreeable to law, and such orders as they shall from time to time receive from the commander in Chief of the State; to make returns to the adjutant general of the state at least once in every year, of the militia of the brigade to which he belongs, reporting therein the actual situation of the arms, accoutrement, and ammunition, of the several corps, and every other thing which, in his judgment, may relate to their government and general advancement of good order and military disciple; an adjutant general shall make a return of all militia of the state, to the Commander in Chief of the said state, and a duplicate of the same to the president of the United States.
And whereas sundry corps of artillery, cavalry and infantry now exist in several of the said states, which by the laws, customs, or usages thereof, have not been incorporated with, or subject to the general regulation of the militia.
XI. Be it enacted, That such corps retain their accustomed privileges subject, nevertheless, to all other duties required by this Act, in like manner with the other militias.
[Act of February 28, 1795, made small revisions in Sections 2, 4, 5, and 10 of Act of May 2, 1792. The 1795 act was the authority for ruling in Houston v. Moore, 1820. Other revisions were enacted April 18, 1814]
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That whenever the laws of the United States shall be opposed or the execution thereof obstructed, in any state, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the marshals by this act, [words requiring notification by an associate justice or district judge were omitted in 1795 revision. The revision gave the President more authority] the same being notified to the President of the United States, by an associate justice or the district judge, it shall be lawful for the President of the United States to call forth the militia of such state to suppress such combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly executed. And if the militia of a state, where such combinations may happen, shall refuse, or be insufficient to suppress the same, it shall be lawful for the President, if the legislature of the United States be not in session, to call forth and employ such numbers of the militia of any other state or states most convenient thereto, as may be necessary, and the use of militia, so to be called forth, may be continued, if necessary, until the expiration of thirty days after the commencement of the ensuing session.
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the militia employed in the service of the United States, shall receive the same pay and allowances, as the troops of the United States, [omitted in 1795: "who may be in service at the same time, or who were last in service, and shall be subject to the same rules and articles of war"]: And that no officer, non-commissioned officer or private of the militia shall be compelled to serve more than three months in any one year, nor more than in due rotation with every other able-bodied man of the same rank in the battalion to which be belongs.
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That every officer, non-commissioned officer or private of the militia, who shall fail to obey the orders of the President of the United States in any of the cases before recited, shall forfeit a sum not exceeding one year's pay, and not less than one month's pay, to be determined and adjudged by a court martial; and such officers shall, moreover, be liable to be cashiered by sentence of a court martial: [words added in 1795:] and be incapacitated from holding a commission in the militia, for a term not exceeding twelve months, at the discretion of the said court: and such non-commissioned officers and privates shall be liable to be imprisoned by the like sentence, or failure of payment of the fines adjudged against them, for the space of one calendar month for every five dollars of such fine.
Sec. 10. [revised to read:] And be it further enacted, That the act, intitled "Act to provide for calling forth the militia, to execute the laws of Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions," passed the second day of May one thousand seven hundred and ninety-two, shall be, and the same is hereby repealed.
APPROVED, February 28, 1795.
A grammar lesson on the 2nd Amendment
The Unabridged Second Amendment
by J. Neil Schulman
If you wanted to know all about the Big Bang, you'd ring up Carl Sagan, right? And if you wanted to know about desert warfare, the man to call would be Norman Schwarzkopf, no question about it. But who would you call if you wanted the top expert on American usage, to tell you the meaning of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution?
That was the question I asked A.C. Brocki, editorial coordinator of the Los Angeles Unified School District and formerly senior editor at Houghton Mifflin Publishers — who himself had been recommended to me as the foremost expert on English usage in the Los Angeles school system. Mr. Brocki told me to get in touch with Roy Copperud, a retired professor of journalism at the University of Southern California and the author of American Usage and Style: The Consensus.
A little research lent support to Brocki's opinion of Professor Copperud's expertise.
Roy Copperud was a newspaper writer on major dailies for over three decades before embarking on a a distinguished 17-year career teaching journalism at USC. Since 1952, Copperud has been writing a column dealing with the professional aspects of journalism for Editor and Publisher, a weekly magazine focusing on the journalism field.
He's on the usage panel of the American Heritage Dictionary, and Merriam Webster's Usage Dictionary frequently cites him as an expert. Copperud's fifth book on usage, American Usage and Style: The Consensus, has been in continuous print from Van Nostrand Reinhold since 1981, and is the winner of the Association of American Publisher's Humanities Award.
That sounds like an expert to me.
After a brief telephone call to Professor Copperud in which I introduced myself but did not give him any indication of why I was interested, I sent the following letter:
"I am writing you to ask you for your professional opinion as an expert in English usage, to analyze the text of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, and extract the intent from the text.
"The text of the Second Amendment is, 'A well-regulated Militia, being necessary for the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.'
"The debate over this amendment has been whether the first part of the sentence, 'A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State', is a restrictive clause or a subordinate clause, with respect to the independent clause containing the subject of the sentence, 'the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.'
"I would request that your analysis of this sentence not take into consideration issues of political impact or public policy, but be restricted entirely to a linguistic analysis of its meaning and intent. Further, since your professional analysis will likely become part of litigation regarding the consequences of the Second Amendment, I ask that whatever analysis you make be a professional opinion that you would be willing to stand behind with your reputation, and even be willing to testify under oath to support, if necessary."
My letter framed several questions about the test of the Second Amendment, then concluded:
"I realize that I am asking you to take on a major responsibility and task with this letter. I am doing so because, as a citizen, I believe it is vitally important to extract the actual meaning of the Second Amendment. While I ask that your analysis not be affected by the political importance of its results, I ask that you do this because of that importance."
After several more letters and phone calls, in which we discussed terms for his doing such an analysis, but in which we never discussed either of our opinions regarding the Second Amendment, gun control, or any other political subject, Professor Copperud sent me the follow analysis (into which I have inserted my questions for the sake of clarity):
[Copperud:] "The words 'A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state,' contrary to the interpretation cited in your letter of July 26, 1991, constitutes a present participle, rather than a clause. It is used as an adjective, modifying 'militia,' which is followed by the main clause of the sentence (subject 'the right', verb 'shall'). The to keep and bear arms is asserted as an essential for maintaining a militia.
"In reply to your numbered questions:
[Schulman:] "(1) Can the sentence be interpreted to grant the right to keep and bear arms solely to 'a well-regulated militia'?"
[Copperud:] "(1) The sentence does not restrict the right to keep and bear arms, nor does it state or imply possession of the right elsewhere or by others than the people; it simply makes a positive statement with respect to a right of the people."
[Schulman:] "(2) Is 'the right of the people to keep and bear arms' granted by the words of the Second Amendment, or does the Second Amendment assume a preexisting right of the people to keep and bear arms, and merely state that such right 'shall not be infringed'?"
[Copperud:] "(2) The right is not granted by the amendment; its existence is assumed. The thrust of the sentence is that the right shall be preserved inviolate for the sake of ensuring a militia."
[Schulman:] "(3) Is the right of the people to keep and bear arms conditioned upon whether or not a well regulated militia, is, in fact necessary to the security of a free State, and if that condition is not existing, is the statement 'the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed' null and void?"
[Copperud:] "(3) No such condition is expressed or implied. The right to keep and bear arms is not said by the amendment to depend on the existence of a militia. No condition is stated or implied as to the relation of the right to keep and bear arms and to the necessity of a well-regulated militia as a requisite to the security of a free state. The right to keep and bear arms is deemed unconditional by the entire sentence."
[Schulman:] "(4) Does the clause 'A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State,' grant a right to the government to place conditions on the 'right of the people to keep and bear arms,' or is such right deemed unconditional by the meaning of the entire sentence?"
[Copperud:] "(4) The right is assumed to exist and to be unconditional, as previously stated. It is invoked here specifically for the sake of the militia."
[Schulman:] "(5) Which of the following does the phrase 'well-regulated militia' mean: 'well-equipped', 'well-organized,' 'well-drilled,' 'well-educated,' or 'subject to regulations of a superior authority'?"
[Copperud:] "(5) The phrase means 'subject to regulations of a superior authority;' this accords with the desire of the writers for civilian control over the military."
[Schulman:] "(6) (If at all possible, I would ask you to take account the changed meanings of words, or usage, since that sentence was written 200 years ago, but not take into account historical interpretations of the intents of the authors, unless those issues can be clearly separated."
[Copperud:] "To the best of my knowledge, there has been no change in the meaning of words or in usage that would affect the meaning of the amendment. If it were written today, it might be put: "Since a well-regulated militia is necessary tot he security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be abridged.'
[Schulman:] "As a 'scientific control' on this analysis, I would also appreciate it if you could compare your analysis of the text of the Second Amendment to the following sentence,
"A well-schooled electorate, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and read Books, shall not be infringed.'
"My questions for the usage analysis of this sentence would be,
"(1) Is the grammatical structure and usage of this sentence and the way the words modify each other, identical to the Second Amendment's sentence?; and
"(2) Could this sentence be interpreted to restrict 'the right of the people to keep and read Books' only to 'a well-educated electorate' — for example, registered voters with a high-school diploma?"
[Copperud:] "(1) Your 'scientific control' sentence precisely parallels the amendment in grammatical structure.
"(2) There is nothing in your sentence that either indicates or implies the possibility of a restricted interpretation."
Professor Copperud had only one additional comment, which he placed in his cover letter: "With well-known human curiosity, I made some speculative efforts to decide how the material might be used, but was unable to reach any conclusion."
So now we have been told by one of the top experts on American usage what many knew all along: the Constitution of the United States unconditionally protects the people's right to keep and bear arms, forbidding all governments formed under the Constitution from abridging that right.
As I write this, the attempted coup against constitutional government in the Soviet Union has failed, apparently because the will of the people in that part of the world to be free from capricious tyranny is stronger than the old guard's desire to maintain a monopoly on dictatorial power.
And here in the United States, elected lawmakers, judges, and appointed officials who are pledged to defend the Constitution of the United States ignore, marginalize, or prevaricate about the Second Amendment routinely. American citizens are put in American prisons for carrying arms, owning arms of forbidden sorts, or failing to satisfy bureaucratic requirements regarding the owning and carrying of firearms — all of which is an abridgement of the unconditional right of the people to keep and bear arms, guaranteed by the Constitution.
And even the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), staunch defender of the rest of the Bill of Rights, stands by and does nothing.
It seems it is up to those who believe in the right to keep and bear arms to preserve that right. No one else will. No one else can. Will we beg our elected representatives not to take away our rights, and continue regarding them as representing us if they do? Will we continue obeying judges who decide that the Second Amendment doesn't mean what it says it means but means whatever they say it means in their Orwellian doublespeak?
Or will be simply keep and bear the arms of our choice, as the Constitution of the United States promises us we can, and pledge that we will defend that promise with our lives, our fortuned, and our sacred honor?
(C) 1991 by The New Gun Week and Second Amendment Foundation. Informational reproduction of the entire article is hereby authorized provided the author, The New Gun Week and Second Amendment Foundation are credited. All other rights reserved.
About the Author
J. Neil Schulman is the award-winning author of novels endorsed by Anthony Burgess and Nobel-economist Milton Friedman, and writer of the CBS Twilight Zone episode in which a time-traveling historian prevents the JFK assassination. He's also the founder and president of SoftServ Publishing, the first publishing company to distribute "paperless books" via personal computers and modems.
Most recently, Schulman has founded the Committee to Enforce the Second Amendment (CESA), through which he intends to see the individual's right to keep and bear arms recognized as a constitutional protection equal to those afforded in the First, Fourth, Fifth, Ninth and Fourteenth amendments.
J. Neil Schulman may be reached through:
The SoftServ Paperless Bookstore, 24-hour bbs: 213-827-3160 (up to 9600 baud).
J. Neil Schulman
PO Box 94, Long
Beach, CA 90801-0094.
GEnie address: SOFTSERV
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Yeah, I had to get a dictionary for those words.
Some individuals take the printed version of the oath in to a notary and take the oath in front of witnesses and have it notarized.
You can also post a bond on the oath.
You can get the Justice of the Peace to commission you as well as a Peace Officer or Constable, Constables are normally elected by their peers the people that are qualified electors and in the same precinct.
What country has that for a pledge?
The founders were zealous to avoid a federal standing army, the government has nothing to fear of troops it controls, the idea was for the people to be at all times superior in force to the state so the state could never become another tyrannical leviathon with a power monopoly.
The second amendment was ratified 1791 the National Gaurd was not founded until 1903 to say the founders were talking about something more than 100 years in the future as the organized militia is insane.
Silly....those guys are snipers....they just lay/sit in one position all day anyway...common..
If you are "forming" a militia, then you would fall into the organized militia, i.e. the armed forces of the nation, which do have an oath you swear upon enlistment.
Thats code not law, thats federal and not state !
The militia is for the security of freedom, not the security of a tyrannical state, the whole concept of militia is to stop tyranny.
We the people created the state, the state did NOT create the people, the state is not supposed to rule over the people, the state is supposed to serve the people.
Thatll' cost me all my cool points, Teach me to eat and type at the same time
The a criminal state is not going to abolish it's self, and will use whatever force it has to defend it's self and expand it's self at the expense of the people.
Code IS law.
As for the Militia, Washington thought they were pretty much useless as compared to trained Soldiers.
Government DOES work for the people, the problem being that everyone has a different opinion as to what the governments role IS, exactly. So its always a matter of compromise between different viewpoints.
In Texas, the state militia generally consists of able-bodied Texans between 18 and 60. (Tex. Gov't Code §§ 431.001 & 431.081) And yes, there is an oath (found in § 431.007 of the Government Code) when the militia is called up:
("State military forces" means the Texas National Guard, the Texas State Guard, and any other active militia or military force organized under state law.)
Disagree, read Perosa vs Tacoma code is private not public.
Private opinion does not aply to the constitution ;
Got it. The U.S. Code isn't law. Now could you explain the significance of the gold fringe on the flags in federal courthouses?
Exactly. He is one of "those" types. Probably has faked plates on his car too because he doesn't think he has to register his vehicles.
Actually if you think about it. For all those idiots who claim that the NG IS the Militia or the state guards. What were the founding fathers worried about when they put in the second amendment?? Were they worried that the US army would be Forbidden Guns????? ....... Maybe according to liberals this is what the "intent" of the 2nd amendment was - "in order to maintain a free state the Armies of the United states shall not be deprived of Guns, neither shall the National guards, cause we all know that a Army without guns is as useful as teets on a bull!"
Boy! that there wasun some smart Founders! They must've known that the first thing a tyrannical Gov't does is Disarm it's ARMIES! Ye old England whooped our ass with fish and chips!
I tried to read the case he cited, but Google said:
Must be a terribly significant case.
ETA: Lexis hasn't heard of it either
Correct, I am a son of the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ and do not recognise codes made by man that add to the laws given by God.
Sorry, but the law says you can only have one father. Even in Washington, I think.
You can't be serious. You don't actually BELIEVE that, do you?
With all my might with all my mind and with all my soul.
puritanical extremist radical.
The whole of the law is one word, Love.
but duh, militia has evolved into that national gaurd because all militia are white supremacist terrrorist organizaions with scary looking guns.
I'mma get some popcorn for this one.
Please remember to take your meds at the scheduled times.
Pharmacy is translated sourcery in the king James bible, only satanists are into sourcery.
So doctors who prescribe drugs are Satan's little helpers? I guess that wold mean that the lawyers who sue them are doing the Lord's work. Interesting.
sourcery must mean you are worried about where you get them little green pills.
If I may quote
Private opinion does not aply to the constitution ;
Is about the only thing you said that makes any sense, and it also means your little wet dream of militia standards and your own little group of wanna-be Robin Hoods is just that, a wet dream, and has no standing.
But it was good for a laugh.
Correct, I am a son of the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ and do not recognise codes made by man that add to the laws given by God., I guess all this blather about the Constitution doesn't matter, so why are you excited about the gov not following it since you don't recognize it either? How do you pick and choose waht laws you follow? I guess if the local LEO decides he doesn't need to follow some of the laws and shoots you, that's fine? f you get to pick and choose why can't he?
Hey I figured it out. Perosa v. Tacoma was held in the same court that decided they could have their very own militia. And he spelled it wrong, it should have been Persoa v. Tacoman. And Tacoman broke the code by not delivering?