You can get them more than once. I contracted shingles two years ago. I delayed seeking treatment because I thought it was poison ivy from a camping trip. Wound up on Valtrex and Tylenol #2. Probably developed postherpetic neuralgia (that's the prolonged nerve damage you referred to, OP) because of the delay in treatment and had to take a series of anti-depression meds commonly prescribed to treat postherpetic neuralgia. I still have residual nerve damage like you, OP, on my left shoulder blade area.
My doc recommended the vaccine even though I'm younger than 55 because I have a chronic immune system condition (MS) and he felt I was at risk for a recurrence. I got the shot and no shingles since then, knock on wood. If you're getting repeat visits in such a short time, it might not hurt to discuss the condition of your immune system and/or anything that could be wearing you down....you might be a candidate for the vaccine as well, even if you're younger than 55.