Updated 7/1/2012

All information and pictures on this web page belong to Arfcom user wolfganggross. I merely put the information in one spot so that everyone can easily reference his information.

List of Ammo Cross-Section Pictures

Rifle & Shotgun Ammunition

5.56 PRL 87gr blended metalM948 SLAPVarious 7.62x54R
M889 5.56 IncendiaryExotic Rifle Ammunition Various API+APT
Mk262 Mod17.62x51 M62 Brown-tip green tracerVarious Incendiaries
SS1097.62x51 Israeli CS Tear GasMixed Rifle
M855A17.62x51 M959 SLAP-TFA-T 127 Duplex 6.35mm
M200 Blank7.62x51 Armor Piercing7.65 Argentine Spotter
M232 Dummy7.62x51 M198 Duplex7.65 Argentine AP
.223 Flechette7.62x51 Solid Copper
Various Caliber Armor Piercing
XM276 Dim Tracer7.62x51 Hornady GMX
Various Tracers
.223 THV
Line-up of various 7.62x51 cartridgesVarious AP
Mk318 Mod 07.62x39 Steel Core7.62x54R Russian Spotter/HE
.223 Raufoss7.62x39 Incendiary Tracer.303 British Incediary
SS109 - ADCOM & PMC7.62x39 Hornady Zombie Max.303 WW2 British AP
.223 APIT7.62x39 Armor Piercing Incendiary7.92x33 (8mm Kurz)
5.45x397.62x39 Chinese Tracer8mm APIT
5.7x28 SS196SR / SS197SR7.62x39 Czech Barrel Proof8mm B-Patrone
Frangible Ammunition7.63x39 Finnish Blank7.62x39 USSR
12 gauge Flechette7.62x39 Yugoslavian API7.62x39 Russian
30x113mm7.62x39 Hornady V-MAX vs. Z-MAX

Handgun Ammunition

Metal Piercing Handgun AmmunitionVarious Pistol - 1Frangible Ammunition
M939 9mm TracerVarious Pistol - 2
9x19 "Sky Marshall"
.45ACP & .44mag "Shell Exploders"Various Pistol - 3
.357mag RBCD Performance Plus
Chinese 5.8x21mm.357mag Multiball9mm Plastic Training Ammunition
.357mag National Cartridge Black Steel AP.357mag KTW9mm German Steel Core
.357mag Winchester Black Talon9mm Simulation Marker7.62x25 Subsonic
.25ACP KTW9mm Israeli Tracer9x18 Makarov
9mm CorBon DPX
9mm Cor-Bon Pow-R-Ball


5.7x28 SS196SR/SS197SR

The discontinued SS196SR sportining round red tip uses a 40gr Hornaday V-Max bullet and has muzzle velocity of 1650 fps. The current SS197SR uses same Hornaday bullet, but a with blue tip and is 100 fps faster at 1750 fps


5.56mm Powell River Labs 87 grain blended metal (powdered tungsten and tin) core in a hollow point copper jacket

This is a true composite/blended metal bullet that was a candidate for Mk262 mod 0. It eventually lost out to the 77gr Sierre MatchKing.



M889 5.56mm Incendiary

The first 2 pics are of a fake incendiary from Jacksonville, FL. Tip was dipped in blue paint, has a cannalure, and weighs 54gr+/-. Headstamp Lake City/ 07 (a m193 ball)


The next 2 are of the M889 5.56mm commercial incendiary. Made by Wolf River Ammo plant (US military) in Ogden UT. Tip was sprayed on, has no cannalure, and weighs 43.9gr+/-. Head stamp FC/ REM. The incendiary mixture of 50% magnesium/ aluminum alloy and 50% barium nitrate (IM11 Incendiary comp.) is ignited on impact with a hard target.



Mk318 Mod 0

MK 318 mod 0, 5.56x45. Same as Federal T556TNB1 62g2 OTM. Optimized for a 14 inch barrel, has a copper base and a small nonbonded lead core in ogive section of bullet. Dark green sealant. 


SS109 - ADCOM (UAE) & PMC (South Korea)

Left to right:
UAE Adcom, headstamp AD/5.556/99.
S. Korea PMC XTAC, headstamp - PSD/10 green tip

.223 Raufoss

Made by Northern Arizona Muntions (NAM). 223 Raufoss with sea green tip, containing barium, titanium, and zirconium sponge, burning at 5000 degrees.  Commercial headstamp RP/223/rem.

.223 APIT

Made by Northern Arizona Muntions (NAM). .223 APIT with silver over red tip. Commercial headstamp PMC/223/rem.


M200 Blank

M200 Blank, second version with rose-crimped case mouth and corrugated groove around case body.

M232 Dummy

M232 Dummy has blackened case/ bullet and with an empty primer pocket. When cut, noticed that 2 different materials (white silica and brown sand) were used to fill the case to mimic the sound, feel, and weight of a orginal round.


M855A1 Lead Free Slug, steel penetrating tip with tin and bismuth core surrounded by a copper jacket. No longer used, now they have a copper core instead. 62 gr LC/08.


.223 THV

.223 THV which in French means "Tres Haute Vittesse" or very high velocity in English, Brass spire tipped projectile, from South Africa headstamp 13/87. A short lived armor piercing round that was ruined by the anti pistol caliber AP laws back in 1986. With its negative parabolic ogive, the projectile has long range, high velocity, high penetration, and also causes serious wound channels. 


7.62x51 M959 SLAP-T

M959-SLAP-Tracer 7.62x51 headstamp WCC/90/SLAP. Its a M196 red tracer in a plastic sabot for matching the same trajectory as the M948 SLAP with the tungsten carbide penetrator. They both travel in speeds excess of 4000fps after discarding the sabot about 20 feet from the muzzle.




These are pics of the M948 SLAP with headstamp WCC 85 SLAP. It has a non ferrous tungsten ceramic carbide core with a Vickers hardness of 1450 (armor plates starts around 500)



7.62x51 M62 brown tip, green tracer

These were used in Iraq to confuse the enemy, so that they would think it wasn't the Americans shooting at them.


.308 Solid Copper

.308 Solid copper projectile, headstamp FA/62, found in a junk box at gun show.


.308 Hornady GMX

.308 150gr GMX Hornaday Super Performance, 95% copper and 5% zinc projectile, Headstamp 308/ Hornaday/ Match.


Line-up of various 7.62x51 cartridges

From left to right:

Exotic Rifle Cutaways

From left to right:


7.62x39 Steel Core

Left side:

Right side:


Russian 7.62x39

Russian Fed, Brunaul, full metal jacket, brass washed steel case (bws), Golden Tiger?
Russian Fed, Brunaul factory code 17, jacketed hollow point, laquered steel case (ls), Brown Bear? 

7.62x39 USSR

USSR, Podolsk (Klimovsk?), Russia, factory code (headstamp) 711/85 with black primer sealant or 87 with red primer sealant. Mild steel core.

7.62x51 Israeli CS Tear Gas

Israeli 7.62x51 (.308) CS/Teargas round. Intended to be shot at hard objects to release the CS compound inside the bullet cavity, not at people. It's a 2 piece construction with a lead filled copper jacketed lower half and a CS filled brass tip that has gray paint on it. Only have found examples from 4/61 or 5/61, on stripper clips of 5 and box of 20. There's also a German 8mm teargas round in existence.



.223 Flechette

.222 Rem Mag R-P fin stabilized galvanized (?) flechette in a Teflon/plastic sabot

Developed by the AAI corporation in the late 50's to 60's during the Special Purpose Individual Weapon (SPIW) Program for Project Salvo by the US goverment.
Started with forty two companies and only 10 submitting proposals including Remington, Springfield, and Winchester.  Several types were developed like the XM110 .223 flechette with green fiberglass sabot (earliest), and XM645 .223 flechette with special movable primer.



XM276 Dim Tracer

XM276 dim tracers from left to right:

Dim tracers trace dim from the muzzle and turns brighter at a distance. They use a composition R-440 trace mix which contains barium and strontium peroxide, calcium resnate, and magnesium carbonate.


Metal Piercing Handgun Ammo

From left to right:



.357mag National Cartridge Black Steel AP

.357 mag National Cartridge Black Steel, armor piercing. Lathed turned steel monolithic, arcane-point shaped projectile in half brass sabot, acting like a driving band. Without that sabot the steel bullets would destroy a barrel in less than 30 shots. These were machined and assembled by hand, one at a time. 1984-89.


.357 magnum KTW

.357 mag KTW, teflon coated steel, heeled shaped projectile with a brass half jacketed gas check band. Headstamp on commercial nickel coated brass case: R-P/.357mag


12 gauge Flechette

Remington/ Peters 12 ga flechette containing approx 24 galvinized flechettes weighing 7.7 gr (.5 gram) each in powder graphite media.
Developed in the late 60's under the Special Purpose Individual Weapons (SPIW) program in the US goverment, in a sub catagory, SCIMTR(?). This was an experimental shotgun program that was designed for defeating body armor at 150 meters. (Just like the other .223 flechette.) Most were 20 ga back then. This helped create the CAWS or Close Assualt Weapons System which was a special 12 ga with 8 large flechettes weighing 31 gr each traveling at 1950 fps. Coming out of the Joint Combat Shotgun program, the m1014 semi-auto combat shotgun was used.



7.62x51 M198 Duplex

M198 7.62x51 Duplex green tip, turned steel projectiles.
Front bullet weighs 84 grs and has a 2" accuracy at 100 yds. Traveling at 2750 fps at 78 feet.
Back bullet weighs 85 grs and will have a 5-10" dispersion at 100 yds. Traveling at 2200 fps at 78 feet.
Intended for machine gun use, M14 and M60
Top round is FA/ 64, bottom is WRA/ 64



Various Incendiaries



An incendiary is a chemical "bomb" that will ignite on impact due to the friction when the projectile hits a hard surface. They are made to ignite gas tanks and take out ammunition supplies. Most are intended to be shot at aircraft, to penetrate the thin aluminum skin. In today's wars, electronics are also targeted. Nothing like shooting a .50 incendiary into scud missle, destroying a million dollar weapon for around $8- worth of munitions!

The compound that makes up the incendiaries in small arms in America is IM-11, which is about 50% magnesium/aluminum alloy, and 50% barium nitrate. When these two are mixed and pressed together under extreme pressures, they self ignite due to the friction on impact.

Other known chemical incendiaries may also contain white phosphorous, and napalm.


Frangible Ammunition

On left is Lancer Frangible in .45acp hp and .223 boattail (had 2 of these, the second was not boattailed). 

The middle two are Delta Frangible in 9mm and .357 sig. 

The .223 on right is one from Federal with a round nose projectile.

Armor Piercing Incediary, Armor Piercing Tracer



Various Tracers

Tracers emit a colored flame from its base when fired allowing the gunner to adjust his line of fire.




7.62x51 Armor Piercing



Various Caliber Armor Piercing

These are a true Armour Piercing round with a hardened steel core, not mild steel like the ball ammo. It may be illegal in some states to have in person, but it is not a federal law. After 1994 crime bill, its illegal to commercial manufacture, or import new AP ammo without a class 10 or 11 FFL ( except for military and police), and can NOT be sold to the public. Pre '94 is perfectly acceptable too own, and reload, as long as its not put into a pistol and used in a crime. Normal FFL's are not allowed to sell or will loose FFL. According to ATF, 30.06 M2 AP is considered ball ammo, along with the M855 .223, and not armour piercing! To put the hardness into persective, Abrasive Resistant (AR) 500 steel has a Rockwell Hardness C (RHC) of 50.



Various Pistol Ammo

9mm Simulation Marker

Canadian 9mm blue and red simulator marker, headstamp IVI/9mm


9mm Israeli Tracer

Israeli 9mm red tipped tracer, headstamp 7/ 73 

9mm Plastic Training Ammunition

9mm blue plastic traning ammo, no headstamp, side of case says DAG/91

9mm German Steel Core

9mm WW2 German 08me steel core 1942/6, headstamp wa/ st+/5/ 42, black bullet

9mm CorBon DPX

9mm Corbon Deep Penetrating X (DPX) solid gliding metal hollow point bullet, 115gr energy 395ftlbs, velocity 1250fps, headstamp *-*/ 9mm+p.

9x18 Makarov

9x18mm Makarov, headstamp 04/78

From top to bottom:
LVE/96/VC - - - - - 04/78
21/74 - - - - - - - - - 04/78 uncut
4/75 - - - - - - - - - - 21/85


.25acp KTW, teflon coated brass projectile on Smith & Wesson cases

7.62x25 Subsonic

7.62x25mm Peoples Rep China "type P" or Mk64 subsonic for the type 67 silenced pistol or type 64 silenced SMG, 120gr with steel core headstamp 11/88.


.357mag Black Talon

.357 mag Winchester Black Talon SXT, 180 gr

.303 British Incendiary

.303 British incendiary, headstamp BV11Z/ 44/ ?

.303 British AP

World war 2, both are British .303 armor piercing, Model # W Mk 1, Headstamps are K/1938/ W1 (Kynoch) and RG/ 43/ W1 (Radway Green) 174 grains overall, .250" steel core, NC Cordite charged, berdan primed, at 2500 fps from muzzle.


8mm APIT

8mm APIT, FN/69

Mixed Rifle Cross Sections




The 62 gr Belgian SS109 was developed with a steel core penetrator at its tip, enabling it to go thru one side of a steel helmet at 600m. Most effective range is at 550m. The steel core hardness is Rockwell hardness C (RHC) 40-45, and made from C 1045 carbon steel. (mild?) Remember AR500 steel is RHC 50! Some ranges may not allow them, even though its not considered AP in the United States.


7.62x39 Tracer


Mk262 Mod1

MK 262 MOD 1 was developed out of 27 different commercial match projectiles in 1999, and then narrowed down to three, with the Sierra 77gr Match King being chosen for the availability. The MK 262 MOD 0 has no cannelure. The MK 262 MOD 1 or the "Navy long range heavy ball" weighs 77 gr, made from either Sierra Match King or Nosler Custom Competition (J4 OTM) bullets. Has a small hole at tip, with a cannelure, and is only mfg. at Black Hills. It is considered to be very accurate and carries well over long distances, but gives poor performance on intermediate barriers. Comparable to Hornady 75 gr Tap T2.



7.62x39 Incendiary Tracer


Various 7.62x54R





.357 Magnum Multiball

Remington .357 magnum Multiball Load pictured (also made in 38 spl) has two 70 gr 000buckshot for a 140 gr payload, code # R357MB. When these are shot, multiball loads usually enter target as one projectile, with the two stuck together. Some what as a novelity, tests have shown that these are far less effective for self defense than a standard .38 spl hollow point. Years made by Remington, 1989 - 1994



9x19 "Sky Marshal"

9x19mm Israeli "Sky marshal" TZ - 1 -72. Brass cased, projectile is stainless steel balls in a resin matrix.

Developed as either a squeeze bore, were the round is broken up in the barrel of the pistol for a shot gun effect, or as a frangible that would break up on hard targets, but enter soft ones. It was rejected and eventually given the name "Sky Marshall" by a D. Dietz. Same time frame as the Israeli SSB (Salvo Squeeze Bore?) loads made by Colt. Not very accurate.


7.62x39 Armor Piercing Incendiary

7.62x39 Armor Piercing Incendiaries. Both have a 2 part projectile with brass tip and steel jacket lower half. Incendiary compound is on bottom and sides and the igniter at the very bottom. This is the Soviet type BZ armor piercing incendiary. Bullet weight is 120gr (7.77 grams).

The People's Republic of  China (type 56) uses same bullet but with black tip, Yugoslavian (M82 cartridge) has a different variant that holds the incendiary compound in separate brass cup. Yugo weighs 116gr (7.55 grams).

Top: Egypt, UAR/ 29/ 71, brass case, black over red tip
Middle: Egyptian full projectile
Bottom: USSR, 539/*/K/*, copper washed steel case, black over red tip

7.62x39 Hornady V-MAX vs. Z-MAX

Just wanted to show the differences between the 7.62x39mm Hornaday Zombie Max 123gr next to the Hornaday V Max 123gr, Both are noncorrosive, berdan primed, polymer coated steel case.  One has ball powder, while the other has stick, and the jacket on the Zombie Max is twice as thick.


M939 9mm Tracer

M939 9mm practice tracer for the model AT4 (M136) shoulder mounted rocket launcher. When fired, this tracer simulates the AT4 in weight and operation. The velocity and trajectory of its ammo match that of the HEAT cartridge used in the AT4. The M287 sub-caliber tracer trainer is used in place of the AT4 in training, which has a special barrel that fires the reduced 9mm load and traces out to 550 meters. Half blackend brass case head indicates use for rocket launcher, copper plated steel jacket with solid copper core drilled out for tracer compound, red tip and white case mouth sealant. There's at least 5 different kinds with different tip colors and steel cases. Headstamp FFV/ 89.




Made for the AK 74 rifle (1 in 10 twist, four grove), the 5.45x39 cartridge was developed before the rifle. Some of the earliest headstamps of 539/68 have been seen with experimentals made from steel 7.62x39 cases marked t/65 in a few collections. Going thru many changes, and with renaming to 7N6, red neck in 1987, the steel core was hardened to RHC 60 with a air space at the tip to enhance tumbling effects upon impact in soft tissue. In '92, the steel penetrator was enlarged, purple neck and renamed 7N10. 1994, the air space was replaced with lead, and upon impact it squirts out tearing the jacket. The 7N22 AP has a sharpened steel penetrator and the 7N24 has a tungsten core. Both hollow point and full metal jacket are made for hunting as well.

Pre-7N6 headstamp 270/76 with airspace and red neck sealant.

7T3 tracer green tip headstamp 3/05 that burns out to 800m.


.45 ACP & .44mag "Shell Exploders"

Shell Exploders from maker Bob Shell.
Top is .45ACP with yellow plastic(?) on top of lead. Bottom pic is .44mag without

Shell Exploders

Shell exploders

9mm Cor-Bon Pow-R-Ball


.357mag RBCD Performance Plus


Yugoslavian API

Yugoslavian armor piercing incendiary headstamp IK/90. This last pic compares Yugo IK/90 (left), Egypt VAR/71 (middle), and Russian 539/K (right) .


7.62x39 Finnish Blank

Finland yellow blank, no headstamp


7.62x39 Chinese Tracer

Peolples Republic of China green tip tracer, headstamp 31/ 57 and 31/67.


7.62x39 Hornady Zombie Max

Zombie Max ammo physically resembles Hornaday Critical Defense line with the exception of a pea green polymer insert rather than the usual red.
123 gr projectile, grey laquer steel case. Headstamp HMC/ 7.62x39.


7.62x39 Czech Barrel Proof

Czech barrel proof, headstamp BXN/83


Chinese 5.8x21mm

Chinese 5.8x21 mm keychain for the new QSZ-92 military service pistol or Type-05 SMG. For comparison, there is a S&B 9mm projectile in the upper left, a Libra snail brass projectile in the lower left, and the 5.8x21 key chain ($150 alone!) on the right. All are very rare, extremely expensive, or just unobtainable.


30x113mm for the French DEFA aircraft revolver cannon. The three with the red painted inside the case are inert practice target rounds, the others are different types of dummies. The two smaller at the top are 30x100mm dummies for the experimental WECOM gun that was fitted to the AH-56 Cheyene experimental attack helicopter.


FA-T 127 Duplex 6.35mm

A military experimental that was looking for an "optimum" SCHV cartridge, this FA-T127 duplex has two 59gr bullets. A different version has a single 70gr load/ one projectile (FA-T124). Also two versions with smaller cases (1.88 instead of 2.08) exsist, the FA-T116 and the FA-T115 duplex. The 6.35 cartridge cases were dimensionally similar to the .25 Remington.


8mm B-Patrone

7.92x57 German B-Patrone spotting cartridge. Has internal firing pin that detonates a small capsule of tetryl which in turn ignites the white phosphorous in the nose of the projectile. Headstamps 7/39/p413/s* and 7/39/p/s*


7.65mm Argentine Spotter

7.65x53.5 Argentine Black tip spotter round. Headstamp; FYA/1928/HP. When shaken side to side you can hear the internal firing pin rattling around. Never use an inertia hammer puller on these. After it slams into a target (soft or hard), the firing pin slides forward and ignites the explose payload inside the nose of the projectile making a 4 foot cloud of white smoke and having incendiary properties


7.62x54R Russian Spotter/HE

Russian 7.62x54r PZ Spotter/ High Explosive, Headstamp: 17/E/40, Red tip. Same idea as B-patrone except internal firing pin slides forward detonating a small capsule of tetryl, which in turn scatters the powdered incendiary composition held in the nose portion of the envelope.(pictures suck, tetryl is yellow, incendiary compound is gray) Still used today by Soviet Union and China.


7.65 Argentinian AP

7.65x53.5 Argentine armour piercing, red tipped. Headstamp: FMM APB/1944


Various Pistol Cutaways, part 2

Top row from left to right

Various Pistol Cutaways, part 3Top row from left to right

Various AP ammunition

From the top to the bottom:

7.92x33 (8mm Kurz)

German 7.92x33mm Kurz, mild steel core and lacquered steel cases. Headstamps: 04/58 - copperwashed steel jacket and 8/45/DOU/-/st - cupro nickel clad steel.